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Dolphin SMART

Literature Documenting Harassment and Swim-With Activities for Wild Bottlenose Dolphins

Compiled by NMFS Southeast Regional Office

(To download copies of articles available electronically, click on highlighted titles)

Allen, M.C. and A.J. Read.  2000.  Habitat Selection of Foraging Bottlenose Dolphins in Relation to Boast Density Near Clearwater, Florida.  Marine Mammal Science 16(4):815-824. 

Bejder, L and A. Samuels.  2004.  Evaluating the Effects of Nature-Based Tourism on Cetaceans.  Pages 229-256 in Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues (N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood, eds.).

Bejder, L.  2005.  Linking Short- and Long-Term Effects of Nature-Based Tourism on Cetaceans.  MS Thesis for Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia.  157pp.

Bejder, L., A. Samuels, H. Whitehead, and N. Gales. 2006. Interpreting short-term behavioural responses to disturbance within a longitudinal perspective. Animal Behaviour, doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.004.003.

Bejder, L., A. Samuels, H. Whitehead, N. Gales, J. Mann, R. Connor, M. Heithaus, J. Watson-Capps, C. Flaherty, and M. Krutzen.  2006. Decline in Relative Abundance of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Long-Term Disturbance.  Conservation Biology doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00540.x.  Published online: 9-Aug-2006. (

Colborn, K.  1999.  Interactions Between Humans and Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, near Panama City, Florida.  MS Thesis for Duke University, North Carolina.  45 pp. 

Cope, M., D. St, Aubain, and J. Thomas.  1999.  The Effect of Boat Activity on the Behavior of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Nearshore Waters of Hilton Head, South Carolina.  Abstracts of the 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Wailea, Hawaii, November 28-December 3, 1999.  37 pp.  

Constantine, R. 1999.  Effets of Tourism on Marine Mammals in New Zealand.  SciConservation:  106.  Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand. 60 pp.  

Constantine, R.  2001.  Increased Avoidance of Swimmers by Wild Bottlenose Dolphins(Tursiops truncatus) Due to Long-term Exposure to Swim-With-Dolphin Tourism. Marine Mammal Science, 17(4): 689-7. 

Constantine, R., D.H. Brunton, T. Dennis.  2004.  Dolphin-Watching Tour Boats Change Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Behaviour.  Biological Conservation 117: 299-307.

Corubis, S.S.  2004.  Behavior of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphins (Stenella longirostris) in Response to Vessels/Swimmers.  MS Thesis for San Francisco State University, California.  209 pp.

Cunningham-Smith, P., D.E. Colbert, R.S. Wells, and T. Speakman.  2006.  Evaluation of Human Interactions with a Provisioned Wild Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) near Sarasota Bay, Florida, and Efforts to Curtail the Interactions.  Aquatic Mammals 32(3):  346-356, DOI 10.1578/AM.32.3.2006.346

Danil, K., D. Maldini, and K. Marten.  2005.  Patterns of Use of Maku’a Beach, O’ahu, Hawai’I, by Spinner Dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and Potential Effects of Swimmers on Their Behavior.  Aquatic Mammals 31(4): 403-412.

Goodwin, L. and P.A. Cotton.  2004.  Effects of Boat Traffic on the Behaviour of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).  Aquatic Mammals 30(2): 279-283.

Hastie, G.D., B. Wilson, L.H. Tufft, P.M. Thompson.  2003.  Bottlenose Dolphin Increase Breathing Synchrony in Response to Boat Traffic.  Marine Mammal Science 19(1): 74-84.

Janik, V.M. and P.M. Thompson.  1996.  Changes in surfacing patterns of bottlenose dolphins in response to boat traffic.  Marine Mammal Science, 12(4): 597-602. 

Latusek, J.N.  2002.  Impact on Boat Traffic on Bottlenose Dolphins in Core Creek, NC, with a Case Study of Dolphin-Watch Activities and Consumer Perspectives.  MS Thesis submitted for Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences of Duke University.

NMFS.  1994.  Report to Congress on Results of Feeding Wild Dolphins:  1989-1994.  NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources.  23pp.

Nowacek, S.M.  1999.  The Effects of Boat Traffic on Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Sarasota Bay, Florida.  MS Thesis for University of California Santa Cruz, USA. 

Nowacek, S.M., R.S. Wells, and A.R. Solow.  2001.  Short-term Effects of Boat Traffic on Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Sarasota Bay, Florida.  Marine Mammal Science 17: 673-688.

Reynolds, J.E. and R.S. Wells.  2003.  Dolphins, Whales and Manatees of Florida: A Guide to Sharing Their World.  University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.  150 pp.

Samuels, A., L. Bejder, and S. Heinrich.  2000.  A Review of the Literature Pertaining to Swimming with Wild Dolphins.  Prepared for the Marine Mammal Commission. 

Samuels, A. and L. Bejder.  2004.  Chronic Interaction Between Humans and Free- Ranging Bottlenose Dolphins Near Panama City Beach, Florida, USA.  Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 6(1): 69-77.

Scarpaci, C. D. Nugegoda, and P.J. Corkeron.  2004.  No Detectable Improvement in Compliance to Regulations by “Swim-With-Dolphins” Operators in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia.  Tourism in Marine Environments 1(1): 41-48.

Spradlin, T.R., J.K. Drevenak, A.D. Terbush, and E.T. Nitta.  1999.  Interactions Between the Public and Wild Dolphins in the United States:  Biological Concerns and the Marine Mammal Protection Act.  Presented at the “Wild Dolphin Swim-With Workshop” at the 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, November 28, 1999.

Spradlin, T.R., L.M. Barre, J.K. Lewandowski, and E.T. Nitta.  2001.  Too Close for Comfort:  Concern About the Growing Trend in Public Interactions with Wild Marine Mammals.  Marine Mammal Society Newsletter, October 2001, Vol. 9, No. 3.

Wells, R.S.  1993.  The Marine Mammals of Sarasota Bay.  Pages 9.1-9.23 in P. Roat, C. Ciciccolella, H. Smith and D. Tomoasko, eds.  Sarasota Bay:  1992 Framework for Action.  Published by the Sarasota National Estuary Program, 5333 N. Tamiami Trail, Sarasota, Fl. 

Wells, R.S. and M.D. Scott.  1997.  Seasonal Incidence of Boat Strikes on Bottlenose Dolphins Near Sarasota, Florida.  Marine Mammal Science 13(3): 475-480.

Wells, R.S., S. Hoffman, and T.L. Moors.  1998.  Entanglement and Mortality of Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Recreational Fishing Gear in Florida.  Fishery Bulletin 96:647-650.

Whitt, A.D. and A.J. Read.  2006.  Assessing Compliance to Guidelines by Dolphin-Watching Operators in Clearwater, Florida, USA.  Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 117-130.

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