Your national marine sanctuaries are centers for strong
local economies and have economic value
reaching far beyond the water.
|I believe national marine sanctuaries are an essential part of the
ocean infrastructure, and one of our best hopes of making sure the
ocean economy we have grown to depend on is sustainable and
productive for generations to come. |
- Dr. Linwood Pendleton
Acting Chief Economist, NOAA
From restaurants and hotels, to aquariums and kayak operators, the success
of many businesses, millions of dollars in sales and thousands of jobs, directly
depend on thriving national marine sanctuaries.
Across all national marine sanctuaries, about $4 billion annually is generated
in local coastal and ocean dependent economies from diverse activities like
commercial fishing, research and recreation-tourist activities.
National marine sanctuaries continue to build stronger
communities, support local economies and maintain coastal
cultures - true American treasures. We are committed to
supporting lives and livelihoods across the nation and in sanctuary
communities through socioeconomic research to better understand
the economic and social drivers of sanctuary resources and improve management practices.
- According to a 2005 study1, counties surrounding Thunder Bay National
Marine Sanctuary garner $100 million in sales associated with sanctuary
activities, $39.1 million in personal income to residents, $59.1 million in value
added and 1,704 jobs.
- Between 2000 and 2003, there were, on average, 473 commercial fishing
operations and one kelp harvester in Channel Islands National Marine
Sanctuary. The value of harvest/landings was $29.6 million; with multiplier
impacts, this value translates to almost $88 million in income, which supported
2,000 jobs in seven California counties.
Between 1981 and 2003, the seven most important fisheries in the Gulf of
the Farallones and Cordell Bank national marine sanctuaries yielded landings
worth more than $31 million per year, accounting for 92 percent of landings
and revenues in the Northern California ports.
Windsurfers ride winds and waves in Monterey
Bay National Marine Sanctuary.(Photo: Kip Evans)
- From 2007 to 2008, more than 400,000 visitors and residents of the Florida
Keys engaged in over 2 million person-days of recreational sports fishing.
These recreational fishers spent $274 million in Monroe County/Florida Keys,
approximately $107.6 million of which was directly spent on fishing items.
- A study2 completed in 2000 estimated that Massachusetts alone accounted
for nearly 80 percent of New England whale watching tour totals, generating
$31.3 million; virtually all of Massachusetts whale watching occurs in
Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary.
- Between 2007-2008, approximately 739,000 visitors and residents
participated in 2.8 million days of diving in the Florida Keys; $54 million was
spent at diving/snorkeling operations. Moreover, divers spent a total of
$470 million in Monroe County, Florida Keys, supporting more than 7,500
Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary provides opportunities for
approximately 25 marine science facilities; these facilities employed almost
2,000 people in 2004 with a combined budget of over $200 million.
Commercial fishers pause at sunset in
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary.
(Photo: Glenn Allen)
- The total benefits of coral reefs to American Samoa residents and visitors
are estimated to be worth around $5 million per year.
- In the Pacific Northwest, Treaty Tribes are connected economically,
culturally and spiritually to natural resources found on their reserved lands
and within their usual and accustomed hunting, fishing and gathering areas;
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary is helping preserve resources
critical for sustaining these ocean-dependant livelihoods that have existed
along this coast for thousands of years.
More information about National Marine Sanctuaries socioeconomics.
Click here to print a version of this page.
Ehler, Rod and Jordan Parrillo. Northeast Michigan Integrated Assessment Final Report: Socioeconomic
Assessment. NOAA and Michigan Sea Grant. 2009.
Hoagland, Porter and Andrew E. Meeks. The Demand for Whalewatching at Stellwagen Bank National
Marine Sanctuary. Marine Policy Center, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 2000.