Flower Garden Map
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Cited References

Allison, W.R. 2005. Snorkeler damage to reef corals in the Maldive Islands. Coral Reefs 15(4):215-218.

Aronson, R.B., W.F. Precht, T.J.T. Murdoch and M.L. Robbart. 2005. Long-Term persistence of coral assemblages on the Flower Garden Banks, northwestern Gulf of Mexico: Implications for science and management. Dedicated Issue, Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Mexico Science. 25(1):84-94.

Baggett, L.S. 1985. Patterns of coral recruitment at the East Flower Garden bank. M.S. Thesis, Texas A&M University, Dept. of Oceanography, College Station, TX. 55 pp.

Bernhardt, S. P. 2000. Photographic Monitoring of Benthic Biota at Stetson Bank. Thesis. Texas A&M University – College Station, Texas.

Bright, T.J. and L.H. Pequegnat (eds.) 1974. Biota of the West Flower Garden Bank. Gulf Publishing Company, Book Division, Houston, Texas. 435 pp.

Bright, T.J., G.P. Kraemer, G.A. Minnery and S.T. Viada. 1984. Hermatypes of the Flower Garden Banks. Bull. Mar. Sci. 34 (3), 461-476.

Bright, T.J., S.R. Gittings and R. Zingula. 1991. Occurrence of Atlantic reef corals on offshore platforms in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. NE Gulf Sci. 12(1):55-60.

Bruno, J.F., L.E. Petes, C.D. Harvell, and A. Hettinger. 2003. Nutrient enrichment can increase the severity of coral diseases. Ecology Letters 6:1056-1061.

Childs, Jeffery N. 2001. The Occurrence, habitat use and behavior of sharks and rays associating with topographic highs in the Gulf of Mexico. M.S. Thesis. Texas A&M University. College Station, Texas.

Coleman, F.C., W.F. Figueira, J.S. Ueland and L.B. Crowder. 2004. The impact of United States recreational fisheries on marine fish populations. Science 305:1958-1960.

Continental Shelf Assoc., Inc. 1996. Long-term monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks. OCS Study MMS 96-0046. USDOI, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, LA. 77 pp. + app.

Deslarzes, K.J.P. and A. Lugo-Fernández. 2007. Influence of terrigenous runoff on offshore coral reefs: An example from the Flower Garden Banks, Gulf of Mexico. Pages 126-160 in Aronson, R.B., ed. Geological approaches to coral reef ecology. New York, New York: Springer.

Dokken, Q.R., I.R. MacDonald, J.W. Tunnell, Jr., C.R. Beaver, G.S. Boland, and D.K. Hagman. 1999. Long-term monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks, 1996-1997. U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. OCS Study MMS99-0005

Dokken, Q.R., I.R. MacDonald, J.W. Tunnell, Jr., T. Wade, K. Withers, S.J. Dilworth, T.W. Bates, C.R. Beaver, and C.M.Rigaud. 2003. Long-term monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks, 1998-2001: Final Report. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, Louisiana. OCS Study MMS 2003-031. 90pp.

Engas, A., Lokkeborg, S., Ona, E. and Soldal, A.V. 1996. Effects of seismic shooting on local abundance and catch rates of cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Science 53: 2238-2249.

Fenner, D. and K. Banks. 2004. Orange cup coral Tubastraea coccinea invades Florida and the Flower Garden Banks, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Coral Reefs 23:505-507.

Gardner, J. V., L.A. Mayer, J.E. Hughes Clarke and A. Kleiner. 1998. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry of East and West Flower Gardens and Stetson Banks, Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Science XVI No. 2:128

Gardner, T.A., I.M. Côté, J.A. Gill, A. Grant and A.R. Watkinson. 2003. Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals. Science 301: 958-960.

Gittings, S.R. 1985. Notes on barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) from the Gulf of Mexico. Gulf Research Reports 8(1):35-41.

Gittings, S.R. 1998. Reef community stability on the Flower Garden Banks, Northwest Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Science XVI No. 2:161.

Gittings, S.R. and G.S. Boland. 1991. Long-term monitoring on the Flower Garden Banks: study design and field methods. pp. 24-28 In: Proc.: Eleventh Ann. Gulf of Mexico Information Transfer Meeting. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Minerals Management Service, New Orleans, LA. Contract No. 14-35-0001-30499. OCS Study MMS-91-0040. 524 pp.

Gittings, S.R., T.J. Bright, W.W. Schroeder, W.W. Sager, R. Rezak, and J.S. Laswell. 1992a. Biotic assemblages and ecological controls on topographic features in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Mar. Sci. 50(3):435-455.

Gittings, S.R., G.S. Boland, K.J.P. Deslarzes, D.K. Hagman and B.S. Holland. 1992b. Long-term monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks. Final Rept. OCS Study/MMS 92-006. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Regional Office, New Orleans, LA. 206 pp.

Gittings, S.R., K.J.P. Deslarzes, D.K. Hagman, and G.S. Boland. 1992c. Reef coral populations and growth on the Flower Garden Banks, northwest Gulf of Mexico. Proc. 7th Int. Coral Reef Symp. 1:90-96.

Gittings, S.R., C.L. Ostrom, and K.J.P. Deslarzes. 1997. Regulation by reason: Science and management in the Flower Gardens Sanctuary, northwest Gulf of Mexico. Proc. 8th Int. Coral Reef Symposium. 2:1967-1972.

Gold, J.R., C.P. Burridge and T.F. Turner. 2004. A modified stepping-stone model of population structure in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Sciaenidae), form the northern Gulf of Mexico, Genetica 111 305-317.

Hagman, D.K.  2001. Reproductive dynamics of coral reef biota at the Flower Gardens.  Ph.D. Dissertation,  University of Texas at Austin.  Texas.

Hagman, D.K. and S.R. Gittings. 1992. Coral bleaching on high latitude reefs at the Flower Garden Banks, NW Gulf of Mexico. Proc. 7th Int. Coral Reef Symp. 1:38-43.

Hawkins, J.P., C.M. Roberts, T. Van’t Hof, K. de Meyer, J. Tratalos, Aldam. 1999. Effects of recreational scuba diving on Caribbean coral and fish communities. Conserv. Biol. 13, 888-897.

Hickerson, E. L. 2000. Assessing and tracking resident, immature loggerheads(Caretta caretta) in and around the Flower Garden Banks, northwest Gulf of Mexico. M.S. Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Hickerson, E.L. and G.P. Schmahl. 2005. Status of the coral reef ecosystems of the Flower Garden Banks, Stetson Bank, and other banks in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico. In: The state of coral reef ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States. NOAA/NCCOS.

Kennicutt, M.C., J.M. Brooks, S. Carr, R. Darnell, R.E. Fay, R.H. Green, D. Harper, J. McEachran, P. Montagna, B.J. Presley, R. Rezak, S. Safe, J.W. Fournie, S.J. McDonald, D.A.. Wiesenburg, F.J. Kelly, T. Wade, and G.A. Wolff. 1995. Gulf of Mexico Offshore Monitoring Experiment (GOOMEX) Phase I: Sublethal response to contaminant exposure. Final Report. Technical Summary: MMS Publication 95-0045.

Lang, J.C., Deslarzes, K.J.P., Schmahl, G.P. 2001. The Flower Garden Banks: remarkable reefs in the NW Gulf of Mexico. Coral Reefs 20:126.

Lugo-Fernandez, A. 1998. Ecological implications of hydrography and circulation to the Flower Garden Banks, northwest Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Mexico Science 16(2):144-160.

Lugo-Fernandez, A., K.J.P. Deslarzes, J.M. Price, G.S. Boland and M.V. Morin. 2001. Inferring probable dispersal of Flower Garden Banks Coral Larvae (Gulf of Mexico) using observed and simulated drifter trajectories. Continental Shelf Research. 21:47-67.

Marano-Briggs. 2006. Does dive equipment spread coral and human disease? 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. Session 265/N, Paper N-164. http://www.asm.org/Media/index.asp?bid=42940

Marshall, P.A. and H.Z. Schuttenberg. 2006. A reef manager’s guide to coral bleaching. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Australia (ISBN 1-876945-40-0)

National Marine Sanctuary Program. 2004. A monitoring framework for the National Marine Sanctuary System. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service. Silver Spring, MD. 22 pp.

Orr, J.C. and 25 other authors. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impacts on calcifying organisms. Nature 437:681-686.

Pattengill, C.V. 1998. The Structure and Persistence of Reef Fish Assemblages of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary. Ph. D. Dissertation. Texas A&M University. 164 pp.

Pattengill-Semmens, C.V. 1999. Occurrence of a unique color morph in the smooth trunkfish (Lactophrys triqueter L.) at the Flower Garden Banks and Stetson Bank, Northwest Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 65(2):587-591.

Pattengill-Semmens, C.V. and S. R. Gittings. 2003. A rapid assessment of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (stony corals, algae and fishes). In Status of Coral Reefs in the Western Atlantic: Results of Initial Surveys, Atlantic and gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) Program. E. Judith C. Lang. 500-511.

Pearson, W.H., Skalski, J.R. and Malme, C.I. 1992. Effects of sounds from a geophysical survey device on behavior of captive rockfish (Sebastes spp.). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 49: 1343-1356.

Precht, W.F., M. L. Robbart, G.S. Boland and G.P. Schmahl. 2005. Establishment and initial analysis of deep reef stations (32-40m) at the East Flower Garden Bank. Dedicated Issue, Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Mexico Science. 25(1):124-127.

Precht W.F., R.B. Aronson, K.J.P. Deslarzes, M.L. Robbart, T.J.T. Murdoch, A. Gelber, D. Evans, B. Gearheart and B. Zimmer. (in press) Long-term monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks, 2004-2005; Final report. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, Louisiana. OCS Study MMS

Rezak, R., T.J. Bright, and D.W. McGrail. 1985. Reefs and Banks of the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico: Their Geological, Biological, and Physical Dynamics. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 259 pp.

Rexing, S.R. Structure and trophic importance of benthic macroinfaunal communities around live-bottom reefs at Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary. Thesis. College of Charleston – Charleston, South Carolina.

Robbart, M.L., R.B. Aronson, L. Duncan, and B. Zimmer. In press. Post-hurricane assessment of sensitive habitats of the Flower Garden Banks Vicinity. U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, Louisiana.  OCS Study MMS.

Sammarco P.W., Atchison A.D. and Boland G.S. 2004 Expansion of coral communities within the Northern Gulf of Mexico via offshore oil and gas platforms. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 280:129-143.

Schmahl, G.P. 2002. Status of the Flower Garden Banks of the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico. In The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2002. Turgeon et al. NOAA/NCCOS. 143-150.

Schmahl, G.P. and Emma Hickerson. 2004. Contributors: Status of Coral Reefs in the U.S. Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico: Florida, Flower Garden Banks, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Navassa. In Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004. Ed. Clive Wilkinson. 431-448.

Snell, T.L., D.W. Foltz and P.W. Sammarco.  1998. Variation in Morphology vs Conservation of a Mitochondrial Gene in Montastraea cavernosa (Cnidaria, Scleractinia). Gulf of Mexico Science XVI No. 2:188

Taylor, D.D. 1973. The distribution of heavy metals in reef-dwelling groupers (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University. 250 pp.

Villareal, T.A., S. Hanson, S. Qualia, E.L.E. Jester, H.R. Granade, R.W. Dickey. 2007. Petroleum Production Platforms as sites for the expansion of ciguatera in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Harmful Algae 6 (2007) 253-259.

Villareal, T.A., S. Hanson, S. Qualia, E.L.E. Jester, H.R. Granade, R.W. Dickey. 2007. Petroleum production platforms as sites for the expansion of ciguatera in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Harmful Algae 6 (2007) 253-259.

Weaver, D.C. and L.A. Rocha. 2007. A new species of Halichoeres (Teleostei Labridae) from the Western Gulf of Mexico. Copeia, 2007 4:798-807.

Zimmer, B., W. Precht, E. Hickerson and J. Sinclair. 2006. Discovery of Acropora palmata at the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Coral Reefs. DOI 10.1007/s00338-005-0054-9.

Additional Resources

Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary

Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries

Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Artificial Reef Program

Marine Protected Areas of the United States

Minerals Management Service

Minerals Management Service Web site, Gulf of Mexico Maps and Spatial Data

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

News @ Nature Web site, Divers carry pathogens in their wetsuits

NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service

NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Regional Office

NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service Web site, Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper Information and Programs

NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries

NOAA’s Southeast Fisheries Science Center

Reef Environmental Education Foundation

Texas Parks and Wildlife

Texas Parks and Wildlife Artificial Reef Program

U.S. Geological Survey

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

University of Texas Marine Science Institute

Home | FAQ |About this Report | Summary & Findings | System Wide Monitoring
Site History & Resources | Pressures | State of Sanctuary Resources | Responses
Concluding Remarks | Rating Criteria | References | Download Report

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