JMPR Banner JMPR Home Sanctuaries Home
Back to Issues
Gulf of the Farallones Issue Name:
Wildlife Disturbance

Problem Statement:
The pressure on marine resources continues to grow as the human population increases around coastal areas and access to offshore environs becomes easier. With the multitude of opportunities for harvesting, observing and interacting with nature comes the potential for wildlife disturbance.

Wildlife disturbance may be caused by direct and indirect factors. Wildlife disturbance may be a result of natural events such as storms, , fluxuations in water temperature, physical/chemical changes to water, and the introduction of invasive species. Wildlife disturbance may also be the result of recreational and commercial vessels.. Human interaction with wildlife is perhaps the most manageable. Feeding wild animals; encroachment on nesting sites, nurseries and rookeries; collecting tidepool inhabitants; and trampling intertidal habitats, are some ways humans impact wildlife.

In 1996, more than 62 million Americans participated in some form of wildlife viewing or nature tourism - nearly one-third of all U.S. adults. In the same year, wildlife watchers spent $29 billion in state and local economies, a 39% increase over 1991 spending. New information indicates the numbers are increasing. Activities include: wildlife viewing, viewing or photographing scenery, beach visitation, SCUBA diving and kayaking. California is second only to Florida in nature tourism and wildlife viewing.

Of specific concern to the Gulf of the Farallones Sanctuary are wildlife disturbances associated with: trampling and collecting in tidepools; impacts from hikers, boaters and kayakers; and interactions with White sharks.

Working Group Participants:
~Working Group Contact~
Name Affiliation Email Phone
Mary Jane Schramm GFNMS 415-561-6622
~Sanctuary Advisory Council Members (SAC) & Other Stakeholders ~
Name Affiliation  
Mick Menigoz GFNMS SAC    
Bob Wilson GFNMS SAC    
Joanne Mohr FMSA    
~GFNMS Staff ~
Name Affiliation Email Phone
Maria Brown GFNMS 415-561-6622
Brady Phillips NMSP 301-713-3125

Working Group Timeline:
Start: February, 2003
Time Location Documents
February 26
March 13
April 29
May 19
May 22
Complete: May, 2003

Issue Characterization
Goals and Objectives
  GF Wildlife Disturbance Goals and Objectives (pdf 60K)
Working Group Information
  1.2 Workgroup Structure (pdf 60K)
  1.6 Consensus Based Decision Making (pdf 88K)
  1.7 Workgroup Process (pdf 72K)
  2.1 Template Stucture (pdf 28K)
  2.3b Cordell Bank Program Matrix (pdf 84K)
  2.3c Gulf of the Farallones Program Matrix (pdf 104K)
  2.4 Steps for Management Plans (pdf 52K)
  2.5 Sample Goals (pdf 84K)
  2.8 Potential Critieria (pdf 104K)
Additional Information

JMPR Documents

NOAA logo

National Ocean Service | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
U.S. Department of Commerce | NOAA Library | Privacy Policy
Contact Us

Many links leave the National Marine Sanctuary Web Site - please view our Link Disclaimer for more information