Alter, S. E., E. Rynes, and S. R. Palumbi. 2007. DNA evidence for historic population size and past ecosystem impacts of gray whales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 15162-15167.
Andrews, A.H, E.E. Cordes, M.M. Mahoney, K. Munk, K.H. Coale, G.M. Cailliet, and J. Heifetz. 2002. Age, growth and radiometric age validation of a deep-sea, habitat-forming gorgonian (Primnoa resedaeformis) from the Gulf of Alaska. Hydrobologia 471: 101-110.
Auster, P. J., R. J. Malatesta, R.W. Langton, L. Watling, P.C. Valentine, C.L.S. Donaldson, E.W. Langton, A.N. Shepard and I.G. Babb. 1996. The impacts of mobile fishing gear on seafloor habitats in the Gulf of Maine (Northwest Atlantic): implications for conservation of fish populations. Reviews in Fisheries Science 4: 185-202.
Auster, P.J., and R.W. Langton. 1999. The effects of fishing on fish habitat. In: Benaka, L. (ed), pp. 150-187. Fish Habitat: Essential Fish Habitat and Rehabilitation. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Babcock E.A., E.K. Pikitch, M.K. McAllister, P. Apostolaki, and C. Santora. 2005. A perspective on the use of spatialized indicators for ecosystem-based fishery management through spatial zoning. ICES Journal of Marine Science for the proceedings of the meeting ICES. Journal of Marine Science. 62: 469-476.
Barth, J.A., B.A. Menge, J. Lubchenco, F. Chan, J.M. Bane, A.R. Kirincich, M.A. McManus, K.J. Nielsen, S.D. Pierce and L. Washburn. 2007. Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 3719-3724.
Berkeley, S. A., C. Chapman, S.M. Sogard. 2004. Maternal age as a determinant of lavral growth and survival in a marine fish, Sebastes melanops. Ecology Letters 85: 1258-1264.
Berry, H.D., T.F. Mumford, and P. Dowty. 2005. Using Historical Data to Estimate Changes in Floating Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana and Macrosystis integrifolia) in Puget Sound, Washington. In: PSAT (Puget Sound Action Team). 2005. Georgia Basin/Puget Sound Research Conference Proceedings. 2005 Georgia Basin/Puget Sound Research Conference, Seattle, WA, Puget Sound Water Quality Authority.
Blanchette, C.A., M. Miner, P.T. Raimondi, D. Lohse, K.E.K. Heady, and B.R. Broitman. In press. Biogeographical patterns of rocky intertidal communities along the Pacific coast of North America. Journal of Biogeography.
Bowlby, C.E., S.S. Intelmann, G. Galasso, and A. Martin. In prep. In Washington State Seafloor Mapping Workshop Proceedings, Jan. 22-23, 2008, Seattle, WA.
Brancato, M. S., J. W. Davis, R. Jameson. C.E. Bowlby and L. Milonas. 2006. Chemical Contaminants, Pathogen Exposure and General Health Status of Live and Beach-Cast Washington Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni). Lacy, WA, Department of Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 1: 175.
Brancato, M.S., C.E. Bowlby, J. Hyland, S.S. Intelmann,and K. Brenkman. 2007. Observations of Deep Coral and Sponge Assemblages in Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, Washington. Cruise Report: NOAA Ship McArthur II Cruise AR06-06/07. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series NMSP-07-03. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Sanctuary Program, Silver Spring, MD. 48 pp.
Calambokidis, J., G.H. Steiger, B.L. Troutman, C.E. Bowlby. 2004. Distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Fishery Bulletin 102: 563-580.
Calambokidis, J., G.H. Steiger, D.K. Ellifrit, B.L. Troutman, and C.E. Bowlby. 2004. Distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) and other marine mammals off the northern Washington coast. Fishery Bulletin 102(4): 563-580.
Chan, F., J. A. Barth, J. Lubchenco, A. Kirincich, H. Weeks, W. T. Peterson and B. A. Menge. 2008. Emergence of anoxia in the California Current large marine ecosystem. Science 319: 920. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/319/5865/920
Clark, R. C., Jr., J. S. Finley, B. G. Patten, and E. E. deNike. 1975. Long-term chemical and biological effects of a persistent oil spill following the grounding of theGeneral M. C. Meigs. pp. 479-487 Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Pollution. API/USCG/EPA, San Francisco, CA March 25-27, 1975.
Cockcroft V.G., A.C. Kock, D.A. Lord, G.J.B. Ross. 1989. Organochlorines in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the east coast of South Africa. South African Journal of Marine Science 8: 207-217.
Collie, J.S., G.A. Escanero, and P.C. Valentine. 1997. Effects of bottom fishing on the benthic megafauna of Georges Bank. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 155: 159-172.
Dahl, E. J. 2001. Naval Innovation: From Coal to Oil. Joint Forces Quarterly 27: 50-56.
Dayton, P.K., M.J. Tegner, P.E. Parnell, and P.B. Edwards. 1992. Temporal and spatial patterns of disturbance and recovery in a kelp forest community. Ecological Monographs. 62: 421-445.
deRivera, C.E., G.M. Ruiz, J. Crooks, K. Wasson, S. Lonhart, P. Fofonoff, B. Steves, S. Rumrill, M.S. Brancato, S. Pegau, D. Bulthuis, R.K. Preisler, C.G. Schoch, C.E. Bowlby, A. DeVogelaere, M. Crawford, S.R. Gittings, A.H. Hines, L. Takata, K. Larson, T. Huber, A.M. Leyman, E. Collinetti, T. Pascot, S. Shull, M. Anderson and S. Powell. 2005. Broad-scale non-indigenous species monitoring along the west coast in national marine sanctuaries and national estuarine research reserves. Report to National Fish & Wildlife Foundation. Smithsonian Institute, National Estuarine Research Reserve System, National Marine Sanctuary Program, Washington, D.C. 125 pp.
Dethier, M. N. 1988. A Survey of Intertidal Communities of the Pacific Coastal Area of Olympic National Park, Washington: Final Report. Final Report, National Park Service, Friday Harbor.
Dethier, M.N. 1995. Intertidal monitoring in Olympic National Park, 1995: a turning point. Report to the National Park Service. Friday Harbor Laboratories. Friday Harbor, Washington.
Dethier, M. N., and D. O. Duggins. 1988. Variation in strong interactions in the intertidal zone along a geographical gradient: a Washington-Alaska comparison. Marine Ecology Progress Series 50: 97-105.
Deuser, W.G. 1975. Reducing environments. In: Riley, J.P., Skirrow, G. (eds). Chemical Oceanography, 2nd ed., vol. 3. Academic Press. pp 1-37.
Devinny, J.S. and L.A. Volse. 1978. Effects of sediments on the development ofMacrocystis pyrifera gametophytes. Marine Biology 48: 343-348.
Downs, C. A., G. Shigenaka, J. E. Fauth, C. E. Robinson, and A. Huang. 2002. Cellular physiological assessment of bivalves after chronic exposure to spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil using a novel molecular diagnostic biotechnology. Environmental Science and Technology 36: 2987-2993.
Eldridge, M. B. and B. M. Jarvis. 1995. Temporal and spatial variation in fecundity of yellowtail rockfish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124: 16-25.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2007. Draft cruise ship assessment report. EPA842-R-07-005. December 2007. Office of Water, Washington, D.C.
Epstein, P. R., T. E. Ford, and R. R. Colwell. 1993. Health and climate change: Marine ecosystems. The Lancet 342:1216-1219.
Erickson, A. 2005. Effects of human trampling in the barnacle zone along a gradient of use in Olympic National Park. Master’s Thesis. University of Washington Seattle, WA. 50 pp.
Erickson, A. and J. G. Wullschleger 1998. A preliminary assessment of harvest on the Olympic Coast. Port Angeles, WA, Olympic National Park: 15 pp.
Estes, J.A., D. O. Duggins 1995. Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation on a community ecological paradigm" Ecological Monographs 65(1): 75-100.
Estes, J.A., D.O. Duggins, G.B. Rathbun. 1989. The ecology of extinctions in kelp forest communities Conservation Biology 3(3): 252- 264.
Etnoyer, P. and L. E. Morgan 2003. Occurrences of habitat-forming deep sea corals in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Redmond, WA, Marine Conservation Biology Institute: 31.
FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission). 2007. Environmental Assessment for Hydropower License - Makah Bay Offshore Wave Energy Pilot Project. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. May 2007.
Field, J.C., R.C. Francis, A. Storm. 2001. Toward a fisheries ecosystem plan for the northern California Current. CalCOFl Report. 42:74-87.
Fluharty, D. 2005. Evolving ecosystem approaches to management of fisheries in the USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 300:248-253
Foreman, M; Callendar, W; MacFadyen, A; Hickey, B; Trainer, V; Pena, A;Thomson, R; Di Lorenzo, E. 2007. Juan de Fuca Eddy generation and its relevance to harmful algal bloom development along the outer Washington coast. In: The Changing North Pacific: Previous Pattersn, Future Projections and Ecosystem Impacts. North Pacific Marine Science Organization. p. 83.
Fosså, J. H., P. B. Mortensen, and D. M. Furevik. 2002. The deep-water coralLophelia pertusa in Norwegian waters: distribution and fishery impacts. Hydrobiologia 471: 1-12.
Gaichas, S.K. 2008. A context for ecosystem-based fishery management: Developing concepts of ecosystems and sustainability. Marine Policy 32:393-401.
Galasso, G. 2000. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Area to be Avoided (ATBA) Education and Monitoring Program. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series MSD-00-1, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD. 34 pp.
Grantham, B. A., F. Chan, K. J. Nielsen, D. S. Fox, J. A. Barth, A. Huyer, J. Lubchenco,and B. A. Menge. 2004. Upwelling-driven nearshore hypoxia signals ecosystem and oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific. Nature 429: 749-754.
Graybill, M.R. and J. Hodder. 1985. Effects of the 1982-83 El Nino on Reproduction of six species of seabirds in Oregon. Pp. 205-210 in: Wooster, W.S., and Fluharty, D.L.,. Eds., El Niño North. Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington, Seattle.
Harvell CD, K. Kim, J. M. Burkholder, R.R. Colwell, P.R. Epstein, D.J. Grimes, E.E. Hofmann, E.K. Lipp, A.D. M. E. Osterhaus, R.M. Overstreet, J.W. Porter, G.W. Smith, G.R. Vasta . 1999. Diseases in the ocean: emerging pathogens, climate links, and anthropogenic factors. Science 285: 1505-1510.
Hass, T. and J. K. Parrish. 2002. Beached Birds: A COASST Field Guide. Second Edition. Wavefall Press, Seattle, WA.
Helton, D. 2003. Wreck removal: a federal perspective. Report 505_Helton_NSC2003, Office of Response and Restoration, NOAA, Seattle, WA. 15 pages.
Heppell, S.S., S.A. Heppell, A.J. Read, and L.B. Crowder. 2005. Effects of fishing on long-lived marine organisms. In E.A. Norse and L.B. Crowder (eds.), pp. 211-231. Marine Conservation Biology: the Science of Maintaining the Sea’s Biodiversity, Island Press, Washington. 470 pp.
Hickey, B. M., and N. S. Banas. 2003. Oceanography of the U.S. Pacific Northwest coastal ocean and estuaries wtih application to coastal ecology. Estuaries 26: 1010-1031.
Hyland, J., C. Cooksey, E. Bowlby, M.S. Brancato, S. Intelmann.. 2005. A pilot survey of deepwater coral/sponge assemblages and their susceptibility to fishing/harvest impacts at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). Cruise Report for NOAA Ship McARTHUR II Cruise AR-04-04: Leg 2. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 15. NOAA/NOS Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, SC. 13 p.
Intelmann, S.S. 2006. Habitat mapping effort at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary – current status and future needs. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Sanctuary Program, Silver Spring, MD, U.S. Department of Commerce. 29 pp.
Jagielo, T., A. Hoffman, and J. Taggert. 2003. Demersal groundfish densities in trawlable and untrawlable habitats off Washington: implications for the estimation of habitat bias in trawl surveys. Fishery Bulletin 101: 545-565.
Jameson, R.J., S. Jeffries 2008. Results of the 2007 survey of the reintroduced sea otter population in Washington State. Olympia, WA, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife: 7.
Jeffries, S. J., H. R. Huber, J. Calambokidis, and J. L. Laake. 2003. Trends and status of harbor seals in Washington State: 1978-1999. Journal of Wildlife Management 67: 207-218.
Juan de Fuca Eddy Steering Committee. 2004. The Big Eddy - Proceedings of the Western Juan de Fuca Ecosystem Symposium. Western Juan de Fuca Ecosystem Symposium 10-11 May 2004, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, B.C. Canada. Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society. 141 pages.: http://www.cpawsbc.org/marine/sites/big_eddy.php
Krieger, K. 2001. Coral (Primnoa) impacted by fishing gear in the Gulf of Alaska. In Willison, J.H.M., J. Hall, S.E. Gass, E.L.R. Kenchington, M. Butler, and P. Doherty (eds), pp.106-116. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Deep-Sea Corals, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 231 pp.
Kvitek, R. G., P. J. Iampietro, and C.E. Bowlby. 1998. Sea otters and benthic prey communities: a direct test of the sea otter as keystone predator in Washington State. Marine Mammal Science 14: 895-902.
Laidre, K., R.J. Jameson, S. J. Jeffries, R. C. Hobbs, C. E. Bowlby, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2002. Estimates of carrying capacity for sea otters in Washington state. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 1172-1181.
Laidre, K.L. 2004. Movements, habitat use, and foraging patterns of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Washington. Final contract report to WDFW, contract #CAPS 03-1450 - DOCS 39040341. 48 pp.
Lance, M. M., S. F. Pearson, and M. G. Raphael. 2008. 2007 at-sea marbled murrelet population monitoring Research Progress Report WA Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Science Division, Olympia, WA. 24 pp.
Lance, M.M., S.A. Richardson and H.L. Allen. 2004. Washington state recovery plan for the sea otter. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia. 91 pp.
Larson, S., R. Jameson, M. Etnier, M. Fleming and P. Bentzen. 2002. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries. Molecular Ecology 11:1899-1903.
Long, E.R., D.D. MacDonald, S.L. Smith, and F.D. Calder. 1995. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental Management 19(1):81-97.
Lumsden, S. E., T. F. Hourigan, A. W. Bruckner and G. Dorr. 2007. The state of deep coral ecosystems of the United States. Page 365. NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Springs, MD.
MacFadyen,_A. , B. M. Hickey and M. G.G. Foreman. 2005. Transport of surface waters from the Juan de Fuca eddy region to the Washington coast. Continental Shelf Research 25:2008-2021.
MacFadyen, A., B. M. Hickey, and W.P. Cochlan. (2008). Influences of the Juan de Fuca Eddy on circulation, nutrients, and phytoplankton production in the northern California Current System. Journal of Geophysical Research accepted: 56 pp.
Manuwal, D. A., H. R. Carter, T. S. Zimmerman, and D. L. Orthmeyer, editors. 2001. Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Volume 1: Natural history and populations trends. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Information and Technology Report, Washington, D.C.
Marasco, R.J., Goodman, D., Grimes, C.B., Lawson, P.W., Punt, A.E., Quinn II, T.J. 2007. Ecosystem-based fisheries management: some practical suggestions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 64(6), 928-939.
McCauley, R. D., J. Fewtrell and A. N. Popper. 2003. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America. 113: 638:642
Miller, M. A., M. E. Grigg, C. Kreuder, E. R. James, A. C. Melli, P. R. Crosbie, D. A. Jessup, J. C. Boothroyd, B. D., and P. A. Conrad. 2004. An unusual genotype ofToxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. International Journal for Parasitology 34 :275-284.
Morgan, L. E. and R. Chuenpagdee. 2003. Shifting gears: addressing the collateral impacts of fishing methods in U.S. waters. Washington, DC, Pew Charitable Trust, Marine Conservation Biology Institute: 42.
Morgan, L. E., P. Etnoyer, A. J. Scholz, M. Mertens, and M. Powell. 2005. Conservation and management implication of deep-sea coral and fishing effort distributions in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. In A. Freiwald and J. Roberts (eds), pp. 1171-1187. Cold-water Corals and Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.
Morgan, L. E., F. Tsao, and J. M. Guinotte. 2006. Status of deep sea corals in US waters, with recommendations for their conservation and management. Marine Conservation Biology Institute, Bellevue, WA
Myrberg , A.A. 1990. The effects of man-made noise on the behavior of marine animals. Environment International. 16: 575-586.
National Marine Sanctuary Program. 2004. A monitoring framework for the National Marine Sanctuary System. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service. Silver Spring, MD. 22 pp.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 1999. Ecosystem based fisheries management: a report to Congress by the Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel. Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Springs, MD
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 2002. Research Plan for West Coast Groundfish. Seattle, WA.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 2004. Pacific halibut fisheries; catch sharing plan. Final rule; annual management measures for Pacific halibut fisheries. Federal Register 69(39): 9231-41.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 2006. Report on the Status of the U.S. Fisheries for 2006. Report to Congress., NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, Washington, D.C.
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 1993. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Final Environmental Impact Statement/Management Plan Vol. 1. FEIS. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Sanctuaries and Reserves Division, Washington, D.C.
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2005. Analysis of Remediation Alternatives for the Pacific Crossing-1 North and East Submarine Fiber Optic Cables in the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. 105 pp.
Norse, E. (ed). 1994. Global marine biological diversity: a strategy for building conservation into decision making. Center for Marine Conservation. Island Press. 383 pp.
NRC (National Research Council). 1999. Sustaining Marine Fisheries. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.
NRC (National Research Council). 2002. Effects of Trawling and Dredging on Seafloor Habitat. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press: 126 pp.
NRC (National Research Council). 2003. Ocean noise and marine mammals. The National Academies Press. Washington, D.C. 204 pp.
NRC (National Research Council). 2006. Dynamic changes in marine ecosystems: fishing, food webs, and future options. Committee on Ecosystem Effects of Fishing: Phase II – Assessment of the Extent of Change and the Implications for Policy. The National Academies Press. Washington, D.C. 154 pp.
NRC, Inc. (Natural Resources Consultants, Inc.). 2008. Rates of marine species mortality caused by derelict fishing nets in Puget Sound, Washington. Prepared for Northwest Straits Initiative. May 15, 2009. 14pp.
Ocean Conservancy. 2007. National Marine Debris Monitoring Program: Final Program Report, Data Analysis and Summary. Submitted to USEPA, Grant No. 83053401-02.
O'Connor, T.P. 2004. The sediment quality guideline, ERL, is not a chemical concentration at the threshold of sediment toxicity. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49(5-6):383-385.
Office of the Governor. 2006. Washington’s Ocean Action Plan – Enhancing the Management of Washington State’s Ocean and Outer Coast. Volume 1: Final Report of the Washington State Ocean Policy Work Group. Olympia, WA. December 2006.
ONP (Olympic National Park). 2008. Final General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement. U.S. Department of the Interior. March 2008.
Pacific Aquaculture Caucus. 2004. State of aquaculture on the west coast: 2004 annual report. PACAQUA, Port Angeles, WA. 25 pp. http://www.pacaqua.org/Documents/StateofAqua4-3.pdf
Paine, R.T. and S. A. Levin. 1981. Intertidal Landscapes: Disturbance and the Dynamics of Pattern. Ecological Monographs, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 145-178.
Parrish, J. K., M. Marvier, and R. T. Paine. 2001. Direct and indirect effects: interactions between bald eagles and common murres. Ecological Applications 11:1858-1869.
Parrish, J.K., S.G. Zador. 2003. Seabirds as Indicators: An Exploratory Analysis of Physical Forcing in the Pacific Northwest Coastal Environment. Estuaries 26(4): 1044-1057.
Parrish, J. K., P. Ayers, K. Litle, and J. Dolliver. 2005. Overflight Monitoring in the West Coast National Marine Sanctuaries. Report to the West Coast National Marine Sanctuaries. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. 58 pages.
Partridge, V. 2007. Condition of coastal waters of Washington State, 2000-2003, a statistical summary. Publication No. 07-03-051, WA State Department of Ecology, Environmental Assessment Program, Olympia, WA.
Pendleton, E. A., E. S. Hammar-Klose, E. R. Thieler, and S. J. Williams. 2004. Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Olympic National Park to Sea-Level Rise. Open-File Report, Electronic Book 04-1021, U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Science Center, Coastal and Marine Program. 22 pp.
PISCO (Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans). 2002. PISCO Coastal Connections, vol. 1.
PFMC (Pacific Fishery Management Council). 2005. Amendment 18 (bycatch mitigation program) Amendment 19 (essential fish habitat) to the Pacific coast groundfish fishery management plan for the California, Oregon and Washington groundfish fishery. In: Pacific Fishery Management Council (ed). 98 pp.
PFMC (Pacific Fishery Management Council). 2008a. Status of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery. Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation, Volume 1. March 2008. Pacific Fisheries Management Council, Portland, OR.
PFMC (Pacific Fishery Management Council). 2008b. Review of 2007 Ocean Salmon Fisheries. February 2008. Pacific Fisheries Management Council, Portland, OR.
Piatt, J. F., K. J. Kuletz, A.E. Burger, S.A. Hatch, T.P. Birt, M.L. Arimitsu, G.S. Drew, A.M.A. Harding, K.S. Bixler. 2007. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia. Anchorage, AK, U.S. Geological Survey.
Pikitch, EK, C Santora, EA Babcock, A Bakun, R Bonfil, DO Conover, P Dayton, P Doukakis, D Fluharty, B Heneman, ED Houde, J Link, PA Livingston, M Mangel, MK McAllister, J Pope, KJ Sainsbury. 2004. Ecosystem-based fishery management. Science 305: 346-347.
PSMFC (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission). 2005. Strengthening Scientific Input and Ecosystem-Based Fishery Management for the Pacific and North Pacific Fishery Management Councils. Suggestions from a panel discussion July 19-20, 2005. Seattle, Washington. http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/npfmc/misc_pub/MarascoPaper705.pdf
Ralls, K., J. Ballou, and R.L. Brownell, Jr. 1983. Genetic diversity in California sea otters: Theoretical considerations and management implications. Biological Conservation 25: 209-232.
Raphael, M. G. 2006. Conservation of the Marbled Murrelet under the Northwest Forest Plan. Conservation Biology 20: 297-305.
Raphael, M.G. and T.D. Bloxton. 2008. Breeding ecology of the marbled murrelet in Washington State. Project update 2004-2007. Report. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Olympia, WA. 32 pages.
Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, C.I. Malme and D.H. Thomson. 1995. Marine mammals and noise. Academic Press. New York, NY. 160 pp.
Rigg, G.B., 1915. The Kelp Beds of Puget Sound, In: Cameron, F.K, Potash from Kelp. United States Department of Agriculture Report #100, Washington D.C., pp. 3-59.
Rogers, A. 2004. The biology, ecology and vulnerability of deep-water coral reefs. Cambridge, International Union for Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources (IUCN): 13 pgs.
Rogers, J.B., and E.K. Pikitch. 1992. Numerical definition of groundfish assemblages caught off the coasts of Oregon and Washington using commercial fishing strategies. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49:2648-2656.
Roman, J., and S. R. Palumbi. 2003. Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic. Science 301:508-510.
Ross, P. S. 2006. Fireproof killer whales (Orcinus orca): flame-retardant chemicals and the conservation imperative in the charismatic icon of British Columbia, Canada." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63(1): 224-234.
Ross, P. S., G. M. Ellis, M.G. Ikonomou, L.G. Barrett-Lennard, R.F. Addison. 2000. High PCB concentrations in free-ranging Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca: Effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(6): 504-515.
Rugh, D.J.; R.C. Hobbs, J.A. Lerczak, and J.M. Breiwick. 2005. Estimates of abundance of the eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 1997-2002. J. Cetacean Res. Manag.. 7(1): 1-12.
Scavia, D., J.C. Field, D.F. Boesch, R.W. Buddemeier, V. Burkett, D.R. Cayan, M. Fogarty, M.A. Harwell, R.W. Howarth, C. Mason, D.J. Reed, T.C. Royer, A.H. Sallenger and J.G. Titus. 2002. Climate change impacts on U.S. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems. Estuaries and Coasts 25: 1559-2723.
Shoji, N. L. 1999. Geospatial analysis of commercial trawl effort within the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. Nicholas School of the Environment. Master’s Thesis. Duke University, Durham, NC. 54pp.
Springer, A. M., J. A. Estes, G. B. van Vlietd, T. M. Williamse, D. F. Doake, E. M. Dannere, K. A. Forney, and B. Pfisterg. 2003. Sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: An ongoing legacy of industrial whaling? Pages 12223–12228 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
State of Washington. 2006. House Bill 2588. pp. 3 in. Washington State Legislature.
Suchanek, T.H. 1979. The Mytilus californianus community: studies on the composition, structure, organization, and dynamics of a mussel bed. PhD thesis, University of Washington.
The Tenyo Maru Oil Spill Natural Resource Trustees. 2000. Final restoration plan and environmental assessment for the Tenyo Maru oil spill. Restoration Plan Cooperating Agencies: Makah Indian Tribe; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lacy, WA. 70 pages.
Trainer, V. 2005. Ecological linkages between physical oceanographic conditions and the seasonal growth and distribution of toxic algal blooms. p. 23-25 in the Proceedings of the Big Eddy - Western Juan de Fuca Ecosystem Symposium, May 10-11, 2004. Sidney, British Columbia.
Trainer, V. and M. Suddleson. 2005. Monitoring approaches for early warning events of domoic acid in Washington state. Oceanography 18: 228-237.
Trites, A. W., V. B. Deecke, E. J. Gregr, J. K. B. Ford, and P. F. Olesiuk. 2007. Killer whales, whaling and sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific: a comparative analysis of the dynamics of marine mammals in Alaska and British Columbia following commercial whaling. Marine Mammal Science 23: 751-765.
Thrush, S.F., P.K. Dayton. 2002. Disturbance to marine benthic habitats by trawling and dredging: implications for marine biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33: 449-479.
Tudela S. and K. Short. 2005. Paradigm shifts, gaps, inertia, and political agendas in ecosystem-based fisheries management. Marine Ecology Progress Series 300:282-286.
Tyco. 2006. Pacific Crossing reinstallation report.
USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 2007. Washington Islands National Wildlife Refuges Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment. Department of Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 249 pages.
Wade, P. R., V. N. Burkanov, M. E. Dahlheim, N. A. Friday, L. W. Fritz, T. R. Loughlin, S. A. Mizroch, M. M. Muto, D. W. Rice, L. G. Barrett-Lennard, N. A. Black, A. M. Burdin, J. Calambokidis, S. Cerchio, J. K. B. Ford, J. K. Jacobsen, C. O. Matkin, D. R. Matkin, A. V. Mehta, R. J. Small, J. M. Straley, S. M. McCluskey, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2007. Killer whales and marine mammal trends in the North Pacific; a re-examination of evidence for sequential megafauna collapse and the prey-switching hypothesis. Marine Mammal Science 23: 766-802.
Wahl, T. R., B. Tweit, and S. G. Mlodinow (eds). 2005. Birds of Washington, Status and Distribution, 1st Ed. edition. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR.
Wahl, T. R., and B. Tweit. 2000. Seabird abundances off Washington, 1972-1998.Western Birds 31:69-88.
Warheit, K. I., and C. W. Thompson. 2003. Common Murre Uria aalge. Pages 12-11 - 21-13 in E. M. Larsen, J. M. Azerrad, and N. Norstrom, editors. Management Recommendations for Washington's Priority Species - Volume IV: Birds. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2008. Species of Concern. Olympia WA.
WDOE (Washington State Department of Ecology). 1995. Sediment Management Standards, Chapter 173-204 WAC. Washington State Department of Ecology Publication 96-252. Revised December 1995.
WDOE (Washington State Department of Ecology). 2007. Oil spills in Washington State: a historical analysis. Publication number 97-252. Revised March 2007. Olympia, Washington.
WDOE (Washington State Department of Ecology). 2008. 2007 assessment of cruise ship environmental effects in Washington. Publication number 08-10-032. April 2008. Olympia, Washington.
Washington State Department of Health. 2008. Shellfish growing area annual reports. Website. Retrieved from http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/sf/growreports.htm#county Accessed on January 29, 2008.
Watling, L. , E.A. Norse 1999. Clearcutting the ocean floor. Earth Island Journal 14(2): 29-31.
Warheit, K. I., and C. W. Thompson. 2004. Common Murre Uria aalge. Pages 12-11 - 21-13 in E. M. Larsen, J. M. Azerrad, and N. Norstrom, editors. Management Recommendations for Washington's Priority Species - Volume IV: Birds. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA. Where Found: 1, electronic. OCNMSlabel: 2143.
Wessen, G. C. (2003). An assessment and plan for a program of studies addressing prehistoric archaeological sites associated with paleoshorelines on the Olympic Coast of Washington. Neah Bay, WA. The Makah Cultural and Research Center. 56pp.
Whitney, F. A., Freeland, H.J., and Robert, M. 2006. Decreasing oxygen levels in the interior waters of the subarctic Pacific. Progress in Oceanography 75:179-199.
Whitmire, C. E. and M. E. Clarke. 2007. State of deep sea coral ecosystems in the U.W. Pacific Coast: California to Washington. In: S. E. Lumsden, T. F. Hourigan, A. W. Bruckner and G. Dorr. (eds). The State of Deep Coral Ecosystems in the United States. Silver Spring, MD. NOAA Technical Memorandum CRCP-3: 109-154.
Wilkening, K. E., L. A. Barrie, and M. Engle. 2000. Trans-Pacific Air Pollution. Science 290(5489): 65-67.
Wilson, U. W. 1991. Responses of three seabird species to El Niño events and other warm episodes on the Washington Coast, 1979-1990. The Condor. 93: 853-858.
Worm, B., E. B. Barbier, N. N. Beaumont, J. E. Duffy, C. Folke, B. S. Halpern, J. B. Jackson, H. K. Lotze, F. Micheli, S. R. Palumbi, E. Sala, K. A. Selkoe, J. J. Stachowicz, and R. Watson. 2006. Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services. Science 314: 787-790.
Zabel, R.W., C.J. Harvey, S.L. Katz, T.P. Good, P.S. Levin. 2003. Ecologically sustainable yield. American Scientist. 91: 150-157.