Accoustic Impacts to Resources (Updated 11/12/2014)
Increased human activity in coastal waters produces greater inputs of anthropogenic noise into the marine environment. Many marine animals, including mammals, fish and invertebrates, use sound to communicate, navigate, and/or feed. It is unknown how anthropogenic noise impacts these sound cues used by marine organisms. Impacts to resources in Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS) due to underwater noise warrant attention and research.
Benthic-Pelagic Coupling (Updated 11/12/2014)
Recreational fishing activities in Gray's Reef
National Marine Sanctuary frequently target large
pelagic species. Managers need to understand how
the extraction of pelagic species impacts bottom
Biodiversity (Updated 11/12/2014)
An estimated 200 species of fish have been recorded at Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS).
Several species of marine mammals, sea turtles and sea birds all utilize the sanctuary at various times of the
year. Diversity at GRNMS is very high compared to shelf sites at similar depths elsewhere, but there are no
baseline data to determine how it may be shifting. In order to adequately protect Gray's Reef National
Marine Sanctuary resources, managers need to understand biodiversity in the sanctuary and how it might be
changing due to natural events and anthropogenic activities.
Climate Change and Ocean Acidification (Updated 11/12/2014)
Climate change is predicted to affect physical
oceanographic and biogeochemical processes within
the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary
(GRNMS) and is being regarded as a cross cutting
theme for the sanctuary's monitoring and research
programs. Climate change is having significant
effects on sea temperature, pH, sea level, and
currents potentially increasing storm intensity,
flooding and droughts. Sea level rise can cause
coastal erosion, wetland loss, alteration of species
assemblages and distributions, impacts on
infrastructure flooding and island re-sizing, and can
have groundwater implications - all of which can
potentially affect the resources of GRNMS.
Climate Historical Ecology (Updated 11/12/2014)
When Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS) was established in 1981, little was known about the
ecological integrity of the site. Current efforts focus on characterizing the present conditions of the ecosystems in
the sanctuary, however studying their early state remains to be done. In order to accomplish their stewardship
mission, GRNMS's managers need to fully understand the past conditions of biomass and biodiversity of the
sanctuary. Estimating baselines informs managers as to the suite of factors, anthropogenic and/or natural, that may
have caused changes to the current conditions of the ecosystems and, in some cases, to lose their resiliency.
Baselines can thus measure how successful the sanctuary is in protecting the ecological integrity of the site.
Baselines are also an indication of the potential productivity of the sanctuary allowing managers to set realistic
management goals and restoration targets.
Fish Spawning (Updated 11/12/2014)
Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS) is home to many important commercial and recreational
fish species. Managers need to understand the reproductive life cycles and the associated habitat needs of
fish spawning aggregations within GRNMS in order to adequately protect those resources.
Habitat Change (Updated 11/13/2014)
Observations in Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and at other live bottom areas in the South Atlantic
Bight indicate that significant movement of sand occurs along the ocean bottom on a seasonal basis. In
addition, wave action during significant storm events is likely to cause changes to hard bottom habitats and
communities. Managers need to understand the impacts that sand movement and wave action have on the
unique habitats and other resources of the sanctuary.
Socioeconomics (Updated 11/12/2014)
Managers need to understand the socioeconomic
importance of the resources of Gray's Reef
National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS) in order
to inform management decisions.