Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
2011 Condition Report

Photo of a scorpion fish in the seagrass


Abbott, G.M., J.H. Landsberg, A.R. Reich, K.A. Steidinger, S. Ketchen, C. Blackmore. 2009a. Resource guide for public health response to harmful algal blooms in Florida. Fish and Wildlife Research Institute Technical Report TR-14. viii + 132 p.

Abbott, J.P., L.J. Flewelling, J.H. Landsberg. 2009b. Saxitoxin monitoring in three species of Florida puffer fish. Harmful Algae 8:343-348.

Acosta, A., C. Bartels, J. Colvocoresses, M.F.D. Greenwood. 2007. Fish assemblages in seagrass habitats of the Florida Keys, Florida: spatial and temporal characteristics. Bull Mar Sci 81(1):1-19.

Adams, C. 1992. Economic activities associated with the commercial fishing industry in Monroe County, Florida. Staff Paper SP92-27, Food and Resource Economics Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Albins, M. and M. Hixon. 2008. Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois volitans reduce recruitment of Atlantic coral-reef fishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 367:233-238.

Andrews, K., L. Nall, C. Jeffrey, S. Pittman (eds). 2005. The state of coral reef ecosystems of Florida. pp. 150 - 200. In: J. Waddell (ed.). The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessments Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 522pp.

Antonius, A. 1973. New observations on coral destruction in reefs. Abstract. Tenth meeting of the association of island marine laboratories of the Caribbean, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR. pp. 3.

Antonius, A. 1981 [1982]. The "band" diseases in coral reefs. pp. 7-14. In: E.D. Gomez, C.E. Birkeland, R.W. Buddemeier, R.E. Johannes, J.A. Marsh, Jr. and R.T. Tsuda (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International Coral Reef Symposium Vol. 2. Marine Science Center, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines.

Aronson, R.B. and W.F. Precht. 2001.White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460:25-38.

Ault, J.S., J.A. Bohnsack, G. Meester. 1998. A retrospective (1979-1995) multispecies assessment of coral reef fish stocks in the Florida Keys. Fish. Bull. 96(3):395-414.

Ault, J.S., S.G. Smith, G.A. Meester, J. Luo, J.A. Bohnsack. 2001. Site characterization for Biscayne National Park: assessment of fisheries resources and habitats. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS SEFSC 468. Miami, FL. 185pp.

Ault, J.S., S.G. Smith, J.A. Bohnsack. 2005a. Evaluation of average length as an indicator of exploitation status for the Florida coral-reef fish community. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 62:417-423.

Ault, J.S., J.A. Bohnsack, S.G. Smith, J. Luo. 2005b. Towards sustainable multispecies fisheries in the Florida, USA, coral reef ecosystem. Bull. Mar. Sci. 76(2):595-622. Electronic document available here.

Ault, J.S. (ed.). 2008. Biology and management of the world tarpon and bonefish fisheries . Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Series in Marine Science, Volume 9. Boca Raton, Florida . ISBN 084932792X. 441pp.

Baird, A.H. and P.A. Marshall. 2000. Mass bleaching of corals on the Great Barrier Reef: differential susceptibilities among taxa. Coral Reefs 19:155-163.

Bauer, J.C. 1980. Observations on geographical variations in population density of the echinoid Diadema antillarum within the western north Atlantic. Bull Mar Sci 30:509-515.

Behringer, D.C., M.J. Butler, J.D. Shields. 2006. Avoidance of disease by social lobsters. Nature 441(421).

Behringer, D.C., M.J. Butler, J.D. Shields. 2008. Ecological and physiological effects of PaV1 infection on the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus Latreille). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 359:26-33.

Bohnsack, J.A. and D.L. Sutherland. 1985. Artificial reef research: a review with recommendations for future priorities. Bulletin of Marine Science 37(1):11-39.

Bohnsack, J.A., D.E. Harper, D.B. McClellan. 1994a. Fisheries trends from Monroe County Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 54:982-1018.

Bohnsack, J.A., D.E. Harper, D.B. McClellan, M. Hulsbeck. 1994b. Effects of reef size on colonization and assemblage structure of fishes at artificial reefs off southeastern Florida, U.S.A. Bulletin of Marine Science 55(2-3): 796-823.

Bohnsack, J.A. and J.S. Ault. 1996. Management strategies to conserve marine biodiversity. Oceanography 9(1):73-82. Electronic document available here.

Boyer, J.N. and H.O. Briceño. 2009. 2009 Annual report of the water quality monitoring project for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Southeast Environmental Research Center Technical Report T-497. Florida International University. Miami, FL. 91pp. Electronic document available here.

Brooks, G.R. and C.W. Holmes. 1990. Modern configuration of the southwest Florida carbonate slope: development by shelf margin progradation. Marine Geology 94(4)301-315.

Bruckner, A.W. 2000. Black-band disease (BBD) of scleractinian corals: occurrence, impacts, and mitigation. University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez. PhD Dissert. 286pp.

Burns, C.D. 1981. A report on the 1980 fish kill along the Florida reef track. pp 36-41. In: D.K. Atwood. (ed.) Unusual mass fish mortalities in the Caribbean and. Gulf of Mexico. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories, Miami, Florida.

Burton, M.L., K.J. Brennan, R.C. Munoz, R.O. Parker, Jr. 2005. Preliminary evidence of increased spawning of mutton snapper (Lutjanus analis) at Riley's Hump two years after the establishment of the Tortugas South Ecological Reserve. Fish. Bull. 103(2):404-410.

Butler, M.J., J.H. Hunt, W.F. Herrnkind, M.J. Childress, R. Bertelsen, W.C. Sharp, T.R. Matthews, J.M. Field, H.G. Marshall. 1995. Cascading disturbances in Florida Bay, USA: cyanobacteria blooms, sponge mortality, and implications for juvenile spiny lobsters Panulirus argus Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 129:119-125.

Butler, M.J., D.C. Behringer, J.D. Shields. 2008. Transmission of Panulirus argusvirus 1 (PaV1) and its effect on the survival of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 79:173-182.

Bythell, J.C., E.H. Gladfelter, M. Bythell. 1993. Chronic and catastrophic natural mortality of three common Caribbean reef corals. Coral Reefs 12: 143-152.

Camp, E. 2011. A study of factors affecting the interactions divers make with coral reefs: a case study of diving in Key Largo. MSc. dissertation, Sheffield Hallam University.

Carlson J.K., J. Osborne, T.W. Schmidt. 2007. Monitoring the recovery of smalltooth sawfish, Pristis pectinata, using standardized relative indices of abundance. Biol. Conserv. 136:195-202.

Carpenter, R.C. 1988. Mass mortality of a Caribbean sea urchin: Immediate effects on community metabolism and other herbivores. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:511-515.

Carr, R.S. 1991. Prehistoric settlement of the Florida Keys. pp. 54-96 In: J. Gato and D. Gallagher (eds.). The Monroe County Environmental Story. Monroe County environmental Education Task Force, Big Pine Key, Florida.

Causey, B.D. 2001. Lessons learned from the intensification of coral bleaching from 1980-2000 in the Florida Keys, USA. In: R.V. Salm and S.L. Coles (eds). Coral Bleaching and Marine Protected Areas. Proceedings of the Workshop on Mitigating Coral Bleaching Impact Through MPA Design, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, 29-31 May 2001. Asia Pacific Coastal Marine Program Report # 0102, The Nature Conservancy, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Causey, B.D. 2008. Coral reefs of the U.S. Caribbean; the history of massive coral bleaching and other perturbations in the Florida Keys. In: C. Wilkinson and D. Souter (eds.). Status of Caribbean coral reefs after bleaching and hurricanes in 2005. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. 152pp.

CEMR (Center for Economic and Management Research).1995. Economic impact of commercial fisheries in the Florida Keys: case study-Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary draft management plan. Tampa, FL: published for the Monroe County Commercial Fishermen.

Chesher, R.H. 1974. Canal survey: Florida Keys. Marine Research Foundation, Key West, Florida. 73pp.

Chiappone, M., A. White, D.W. Swanson, S.L. Miller. 2002a. Occurrence and biological impacts of fishing gear and other marine debris in the Florida Keys. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(7):597-604.

Chiappone, M., D.W. Swanson, S.L. Miller. 2002b. Density, spatial distribution and size structure of sea urchins in coral reef and hard bottom habitats of the Florida Keys. Marine Ecology Progress Series 235:117-126.

Chiappone, M., D.W. Swanson, S.L. Miller, S.G. Smith. 2002c. Large-scale surveys on the Florida Reef Tract indicate poor recovery of the long-spined sea urchinDiadema antillarum. Coral Reefs 21:155-159.

Chiappone, M., H. Dienes, D.W. Swanson, S.L. Miller. 2004. Spatial distribution of lost fishing gear on fished and protected reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Caribbean Journal of Science 40(3) 312-326.

Chiappone, M., H. Dienes, D.W. Swanson, S.L. Miller. 2005. Impacts of lost fishing gear on coral reef sessile invertebrates in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Biological Conservation 121(2):221-230.

Chiappone, M., L.M. Rutten, S.L. Miller, D.W. Swanson. 2007. Large-scale distributional patterns of the encrusting and excavating sponge Cliona delitrix pang on Florida Keys coral substrates. In: Porifera Research - Biodiversity, Innovation, Sustainability. M.R. Custodio, G. Lobo-Hajdu, E. Hajdu, G. Muricy (eds), Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, pp 255-263

Chiappone, M., L.M. Rutten, D.W. Swanson, S.L. Miller. 2008. Population status of the urchin Diadema antillarum in the Florida Keys 25 years after the Caribbean mass mortality. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, pp 706-710

City of Key West, Finance Department. 2005. The Impact of the Cruise Ship Industry on the Quality of Life in Key West. RFQ No: 04-001 City of Key West Naval Properties Local Redevelopment Authority.

Clark, C. 2006. Lobster fishermen stake it all on 2006 season. Miami Herald. Miami, FL.

Clavero, M. and E. García-Berthou. 2005. Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:110.

Cochard R., S.L. Ranamukhaarachchi, G.P. Shivakoti, O.V. Shipin, P.J. Edwards, K.T. Seeland. 2008. The 2004 tsunami in Aceh and Southern Thailand: A review on coastal ecosystems, wave hazards and vulnerability. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 10:3-40.

Collins, A.B. 2009. A preliminary assessment of the abundance and size distribution of goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara within a defined region of the central eastern Gulf of Mexico. 6st Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute Proceedings: 184-190.

Corbett, D.R., K. Dillon, W. Burnett, J. Chanton. 2000. Estimating the groundwater contribution into Florida Bay via natural tracers, 222Rn and CH4. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(7):1546-1557.

Cowen, R. K., C. B. Paris, A. Srinivasan. 2006. Scaling of connectivity in marine populations. Science. 311(5760):522-527

Cox, C. and J.H. Hunt. 2005. Change in size and abundance of Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus in a marine reserve in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, USA. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 294:227-239.

Creed, J.C. 2006. Two invasive alien azooxanthellate corals, Tubastraea coccineaand Tubastraea tagusensis, dominate the native zooxanthellate Mussismilia hispidain Brazil. Coral Reefs 25: 350.

Cross, J.A. 1980. Residents' concerns about hurricane hazard within the Lower Florida Keys. National Conference on Hurricanes and Coastal Storms Proceedings. pp. 156-161.

Davis, G.E. 1977. Anchor damage to a coral reef on the coast of Florida. Biol. Conserv. 11(1)29-34.

Davis, G.E. 1982. A century of natural change in coral distribution at the Dry Tortugas: a comparison of reef maps from 1881 and 1976. Bulletin of Marine Science 32(2)608-623.

De'Ath, G., J.M. Lough, K.E. Sabricius. 2009. Declining coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Science 323:116-119. doi:10.1126/science.1165283

Delgado, G. A., C. T. Bartels, R. A. Glazer, N. J. Brown-Peterson, K. J. McCarthy. 2004. Translocation as a strategy to rehabilitate the queen conch (Strombus gigas) population in the Florida Keys. Fish. Bull. 102: 278-288.

Denner, E.B.M., G.W. Smith, H. Busse, P. Schumann, T. Narzt, S.W. Polson, W. Lubitz, L.L. Richardson. 2003. Aurantimonas coralicida gen. nov., sp. nov., the causative agent of white plague type II on Caribbean scleractinian corals. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53:1115-1122

Derraik, J.G. 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(9):842-852.

de Sylva, D. P. 1994. Distribution and ecology of ciguatera fish poisoning in Florida, with emphasis on the Florida Keys. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54(3): 944-954.

DiDomenico, G., 2001. Storm Trap Debris Generated From Lost and Abandoned Lobster and Stone Crab Traps in Monroe County. Environmental Problem Solving Group, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida.

Donahue, S. 2008. Influences of the Loggerhead sponge (Spheciospongia vesparium) and the Vase sponge (Ircinia campana) on nearshore hard bottom community development in the Florida Keys. MS Thesis, Old Donimion University. Norfolk, VA.

Donohue, M., R. Boland, C. Sramek, G. Antonelis. 2001. Derelict fishing gear in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands: diving surveys and debris removal in 1999 confirm threat to coral reef ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42:1301-1312.

Donahue, S., A. Acosta, L. Akins, J. Ault, J. Bohnsack, J. Boyer, M. Callahan, B. D. Causey, C. Cox, J. Delaney, G. Delgado, K. Edwards, G. Garrett, B. D. Keller, G. T. Kellison, V. R. Leeworthy, L. MacLaughlin, L. McClenachan, M. W. Miller, S. L. Miller, K. Ritchie, S. Rohmann, D. Santavy, C. Pattengill-Semmens, B. Sniffen, S. Werndli, and D. E. Williams. 2008. The state of coral reef ecosystem of the Florida Keys. pp. 161-187. In: J.E. Waddell and A.M. Clarke (eds.), The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2008. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 73. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 569 pp.

Drew, C.A. and D.B. Eggleston. 2008. Juvenile fish densities in Florida Keys mangroves correlate with landscape characteristics. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 362:233-243.

Dunlap, M. and J.R. Pawlik. 1998. Spongivory by parrotfishes in Florida mangrove and reef habitats. Mar. Ecol. PSZNI 19:325-337.

Dustan, P. 1977. Vitality of reef coral populations off Key Largo, Florida: recruitment and mortality. Environ Geol 2:51-58.

Dustan, P. and J.C. Halas. 1987. Changes in the reef-coral community of Carysfort Reef, Key Largo, Florida: 1974 to 1982. Coral Reefs 6:91-106.

Edmunds, P.J. and R. Elahi. 2007. The demographics of a 15-year decline in cover of the Caribbean reef coral Montastraea annularus. Ecological Monographs 77(1):3-18.

Ene, A., M. Su, S. Lemaire, C. Rose, S. Schaff, R. Moretti, J. Lenz, L.H. Herbst. 2005. Distribution of chelonid fibropapillomatosis-associated herpesvirus variants in Florida: molecular genetic evidence for infection of turtles following recruitment to neritic developmental habitats. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(3):489-497. Electronic document available here.

Enos, P. 1977. Holocene sediment accumulations of the South Florida shelf margin.In: P. Enos and R.D. Perkins (eds.). Quaternary Sedimentation in South Florida; Geological Society of America Memoir 147. Boulder, CO, p. 1-130.

Farrer, A.A. 2010. N-Control seagrass restoration monitoring report, monitoring events 2003-2008. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Monroe County, Florida. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series ONMS-10-06. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, Silver Spring, MD. 32pp.

FDER (Florida Department of Environmental Regulation). 1987. Florida Keys Monitoring Study: Water quality assessment of five selected pollutant sources in Marathon, Florida. FDER, Marathon Office, 187 pp.

Fenner, D. and K. Banks. 2004. Orange cup coral Tubastraea coccinea invades Florida and the Flower Garden Banks, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Coral Reefs 23:505-507.

Ferry, R. 2009. Range expansion of an invasive coral species into South Florida and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: investigating the ecological impact and source of the invasion. Wetlands, Coastal and Oceans Branch, EPA, Region 4. 6pp.

FFWC (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission), Florida Marine Research Institute and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1998. Benthic Habitats of the Florida Keys. FMRI Technical Report No. TR-4. 52 pp.

Foley, A.M., B.A. Schroeder, A.E. Redlow, K.J. Fick-Child, W.G. Teas. 2005. Fibropapillomatosis in stranded green turtle (Chelonia mydas) from the eastern United States (1980-98): Trends and associations with environmental factors. Journal of Wildlife Disease 41:29-41.

Fong, P. and D. Lirman. 1994. Damage and recovery on a coral reef following hurricane Andrew. Research & Exploration 10(2):246-248.

Fong, P. and D. Lirman. 1995. Hurricanes cause population expansion of the branching coral Acropora palmata (Scleractinia): Wound healing and growth patterns of asexual recruits. Marine Ecology 16(4):317-335.

Forcucci, D.1994. Population density, recruitment and 1991mortality event ofDiadema antillarum in the Florida Keys. Bull Mar Sci 54:917-928.

Fourqurean, J.W. 2009. FY2008 Annual report of seagrass monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Contracts: NOAA - NA04NOS4780024, NA06NOS54780105; EPA X97468102-7.

Fourqurean, J.W. and M.B. Robblee. 1999. Florida Bay: a history of recent ecological changes. Estuaries 22(2B):345-357.

Fourqurean, J.W., M.J. Durako, L.X. Hefty. 2002. Seagrass distribution in south Florida: a multi-agency coordinated monitoring program. In: J.W. Porter and K.G. Porter (eds.), Linkages between ecosystems in the south Florida hydroscape: the river of grass continues. CRC Publ., Boca Raton, FL, pp. 489-514.

Fourqurean, J.W., J.N. Boyer, M.J. Durako, L.N. Hefty, B.J. Peterson. 2003. Forecasting Response of Seagrass Distributions to Changing Water Quality Using Monitoring Data. Ecological Applications 13(2)474-489.

Frank, K.T., B. Petrie, J.S. Choi, W.C. Leggett. 2005. Trophic cascades in a formerly cod-dominated ecosystem. Science 308:1621-1623.

Furman, B.T. and K.L. Heck. 2008. Effects of nutrient enrichment and grazers on coral reefs: an experimental assessment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 363:89-101.

FWRI (Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute). 2010. Commercial fishing fish ticket information system. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Gardner, T. A., I. M. Côté, J. A. Gill, A. Grant, A. R. Watkinson. 2003. Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals. Science 301(5635):958-960.

Gardner, T.A., I.M. Côté, J.A. Gill, A. Grant, A.R. Watkinson. 2005. Hurricanes and Caribbean coral reefs: Impacts, recovery patterns, and role in long-term decline. Ecology 86:174-184.

Geiser, D.M., J.W. Taylor, K.B. Ritchie, G.W. Smith. 1998. Cause of sea fan death in the West Indies. Nature 394:137-138.

Gerard, S. 1992. Caribbean treasure hunt. Sea Frontiers. pp. 49-62.

Ginsburg, R.N. and E.A. Shinn. 1964. Distribution of the reef building community in Florida and the Bahamas [abs]: American Association of Petroleum Geologists 48:527.

Gladfelter, W.B., 1991. Population structure of Acropora palmata on the windward forereef, Buck Island National Monument: Seasonal and catastrophic changes 1988-1989. Chapter 5. In: Ecological Studies of Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, US. Virgin Islands. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, U.S. Virgin Islands.

Glazer, R.A. and G.A. Delgado. 2003. Towards a holistic strategy to managing Florida's queen conch (Strombus gigas) population. pp. 73-80. In: D. Aldana Aranda (ed.). El Caracol Strombus gigas: Conocimiento Integral para su Manejo Sustentable en el Caribe. CYTED, Programa Iberoamericano de Ciencia y Technología para el Desarrollo. Yucatán, México. 165 pp.

Glazer, R., N. Denslow., N. Brown-Peterson, P. McClellan-Green, D. Barber, N. Szabo, G. Delgado, K. Kroll, I. Knoebl, D. Spade. 2008. Anthropogenic effects on queen conch reproductive development in South Florida, a final report. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute. 73pp. Electronic document available here.

Glynn, P., A.M. Szmant, E.F. Corcoran, S.V. Cofer-Shabica. 1989. Condition of coral reef cnidarians from the northern Florida reef tract: Pesticides, heavy metals, and histopathological examination. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20(11):568-576.

Gómez, R., D. Erpenbeck, T. Van Dijk, E. Richelle-Maurer, C. Devijver, J.C. Braekman, C. Woldringh, R.W.M. Van Soest. 2004. Identity of cyanobacterial symbionts of Xestospongia muta. Boll. Mus. Ist. Biol. Univ. Genova 66-67:82-83.

Goreau, T.J., J. Cervino, M. Goreau, R. Hayes, M. Hayes, L. Richardson. G. Smith, K. DeMeyer. I. Nagelkerken. J. Garzón-Ferreira, D. Gil. G. Garrison, E. H. Williams, L. Bunkley-Williams. C. Quirolo, K. Patterson, J. Porter, K. Porter. 1998. Rapid spread of Caribbean coral reef diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 46:157-171. Electronic document available here.

Halas, J.F. 1988. An inventory of shipwrecks, grounding, and cultural marine resources within the Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary Region: Preliminary Report. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOA MEMD # NA87AA-H-CZ007, Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary.

Hammerstrom, K.K., J.W. Kenworthy, P.E. Whitfield, M.F. Merello. 2007. Response and recovery dynamics of seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme and macroalgae in experimental motor vessel disturbances. MEPS 45:83-92.

Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. 1994. The effects of storms and cyclones on coral reefs: a review. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 12:211-231.

Harper, D.E., J.A. Bohnsack, B. Lockwood. 2000. Recreational fisheries in Biscayne National Park, Florida, 1976-1991. Mar. Fish. Rev. 62:8-26.

Harvell, C.D., K. Kim, J.M. Burkholder, R.R. Colwell, P.R. Epstein, D.J. Grimes, E.E. Hofmann, E.K. Lipp, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, R.M. Overstreet, J.W. Porter, G.W. Smith, G.R. Vasta. 1999. Emerging Marine Diseases - Climate Links and Anthropogenic Factors.Marine Ecology 285:1505-1510.

Herbst, L.H. 1994. Fibropapillomatosis of marine turtles. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 4:389-425.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1999. Coral bleaching, Climate change and the future of the world's coral reefs. Review, Marine and Freshwater Research 50:839-866.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P.J. Mumby, A.J. Hooten, R.S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, C.D. Harvell, P.F. Sale, A.J. Edwards, K. Caldeira, N. Knowlton, C.M. Eakin, R. Iglesias-Prieto, N. Muthiga, R.H. Bradbury, A. Dubi M.E. Hatziolos 2007. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318(5857):1737-1742. doi:10.1126/science.1152509

Hoffmeister, J.E. and H.G. Multer. 1968. Geology and Origin of the Florida Keys. GSA Bulletin 79(11):1487-1502.

Hu, C., K.E. Hackett, M.K. Callahan, S. Andrefouet, J.L. Wheaton, J.W. Porter, F.E. Muller-Karger. 2003. The 2002 ocean color anomaly in the Florida Bight: A cause of local coral reef decline? Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(3):1151.

Hughes, T.P. 1994. Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science 265:1547-1551.

Hughes, T.P. and J.E. Tanner. 2000. Recruitment failure, life histories, and long-term decline of Caribbean corals. Ecology 81(8):2250-2263.

Hunt, J.H. 1987. Status of queen conch (Strombus gigas) management in the Florida Keys, U.S.A. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 38: 376

Hunt, J. and W. Nuttle. 2007. Florida Bay Science Program: a synthesis of research on Florida Bay. Fish and Wildlife Research Institute Technical Report TR-11. 148pp. Electronic document available here.

ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea). 2003. Report of the working group on pathology and diseases of marine organisms. Aberdeen, UK. 95pp. Electronic document available here.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2001. Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. A Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T. and the Core Writing Team (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York, NY, USA, 398pp.

Jaap, W.C., 1979. Observation on zooxanthellae expulsion at Middle Sambo Reef, Florida Keys, Bull Mar. Sci. 29:414-422.

Jaap, W.C. 1984. The ecology of the South Florida coral reefs: A community profile. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Minerals Management Service Publication FWS/OBS 82/08 and MMS 84-0038. 138pp.

Jaap, W.C. 1988. The 1987 zooxanthellae expulsion event at Florida reef. In: J.C. Ogden and R.I. Wicklund (eds.) Mass bleaching of coral reefs in the Caribbean. Report of a workshop, 9-10 December 1987, St. Croix, USVI, NURP/NOAA.

Jaap, W.C., Lyons, W.G., Dustan, P., Halas, J.C. 1989. Stony coral (Scleractinia and Milleporina) community structure at Bird Key Reef, Ft. Jefferson National Monument, Dry Tortugas, Florida. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. No. 46. 31pp.

Jackson, J.B.C. 1992. Pleistocene Perspectives on Coral Reef Community Structure. Amer. Zool. 32(6): 719-731.

Jackson, J.B.C., M.X. Kirby, W.H. Berger, K.A. Bjorndal, L.W. Botsford, B.J. Bourque, R.H. Bradbury, R. Cooke, J. Erlandson, J.A. Estes, T.P. Hughes, S, Kidwell, C.B. Lange, H.S. Lenihan, J.M. Pandofi, C.H. Peterson, R.S. Steneck, M.J. Tegner, R.R. Warner. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629-638.

Johns, G.M., V.R. Leeworthy, F.W. Bell, M.A. Bonn. 2003. Socioeconomic study of reefs in Southeast Florida. Hazen and Sawyer in association with Florida State University and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 349pp. Electronic document available here.

Jordan, L.K.B., K. W. Banks, L. E. Fisher, B. K. Walker, and D. S. Gilliam. 2010. Elevated sedimentation on coral reefs adjacent to a beach nourishment project. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:261-271.

Keller, B.D. and B.D. Causey. 2005. Linkages between the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Initiative. Ocean & Coastal Management 48: 69-900.

Keller, B.D. and S. Donahue (eds). 2006. 2002-03 sanctuary science report: an ecosystem report card after five years of marine zoning. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Marathon.

Keller, B.D., D.F. Gleason, E. McLeod, C.M. Woodley, S. Airame, B.D. Causey, A.M. Friedlander, R. Grober-Dunsmore, J.E. Johnson, S.L. Miller, R.S. Steneck. 2009. Climate change, coral reef ecosystems, and management options for marine protected areas. Environmental Management 44:1069-1088.

Kenworthy W.J., M.S. Fonsec, P.E. Whitfield, K.K. Hammerstrom. 2002. Analysis of seagrass recovery in experimental excavations and propeller-scar disturbances in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. J Coast Res 37:75-85.

Klein III, C.J. and S.P. Orlando, Jr. 1994. A spatial framework for water-quality management in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Bull Mar Sci 54:1036-1044.

Kruczynski, W.L. and F. McManus. 2002. Water quality concerns in the Florida Keys: sources, effects, and solutions. In: Porter JW, Porter KG (eds.) The Everglades, Florida Bay, and coral reefs of the Florida Keys: an ecosystem sourcebook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 827-881.

Kruer, K. R. and L. G. Causey. 1992. The use of large artificial reefs to enhance fish populations at different depths in the Florida Keys. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 16. NOAA/NCCOS Coastal and Estuarine Data Archaeology and Rescue Program. Silver Spring, MD. 208pp.

Landsberg, J. 1995. Tropical reef-fish disease outbreaks and mass mortalities in Florida, USA: what is the role of dietary biological toxins? Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 22:83-100.

Lapointe, B.E. and M.W. Clark. 1990. Final Report: Spatial and Temporal Variability in Trophic State of Surface Waters in Monroe County During 1989 1990. Florida Keys Land and Sea Trust, Marine Conservation Program, Marathon, Florida. 81 pp.

Lapointe, B.E. and M.W. Clark. 1992. Nutrient inputs from the watershed and coastal eutrophication in the Florida Keys. Estuaries 15(4):465-476.

Lee, T.N., C. Rooth, E. Williams, M. McGowan, A. Szmant, M. E. Clarke. 1992. Influence of Florida Current, gyres and wind driven circulation on transport of larvae and recruitment in the Florida Keys coral reefs. Cont. Shelf Res. 12:971-1002.

Lee, T.N., M.E. Clarke, E. Williams, A.F. Szmant, T. Berger. 1994. Evolution of the Tortugas gyre and its influence on recruitment in the Florida Keys. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54(3)21-646.

Lee, T.N. and E. Williams. 1999. Mean Distribution and Seasonal Variability of Coastal Currents and Temperature in the Florida Keys with Implications for Larval Recruitment. Bull. of Mar. Science 64(1)35-56.

Lee, T.N. and N. Smith. 2002. Volume transport variability through the Florida Keys tidal channels. Continental Shelf Research 22:1361-1377.

Leeworthy, V.R. 1995. Review of the economic impact of commercial fisheries in the Florida Keys: case study-Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary draft management plan. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Leeworthy, V.R. 1996. Technical appendix: sampling methodologies and estimation methods applied to the Florida Keys/Key West Visitor Surveys. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 170 pp. Electronic document available here.

Leeworthy, V.R. 2010. Visitor Study: Selected Comparisons 1995-96 and 2007-08. Silver Spring: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, July 2010, 17pp. Electronic document available here.

Leeworthy, V.R. and P.C. Wiley. 1996. Visitor profiles: Florida Keys/Key West. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 159pp.Electronic document available here.

Leeworthy, V.R. and P.C. Wiley. 1997. A socioeconomic analysis of the recreation activities of Monroe County residents in the Florida Keys/Key West. Silver Spring, Maryland: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Electronic document available here.

Leeworthy, V.R., T. Maher, E.A. Stone. 2006. Can artificial reefs alter user pressure on adjacent natural reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science, 78 (1):29-37. Electronic document available here.

Leeworthy, V.R. and F.C. Morris. 2010. A socioeconomic analysis of the recreation activities of Monroe County residents in the Florida Keys/Key West 2008. Silver Spring: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, September 2010, 61pp. Electronic document available here.

Leeworthy, V.R., D.K. Loomis, S.K. Paterson. 2010. Visitor profiles: Florida Keys/Key West 2007-08. Silver Spring: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Amherst, MA: Human Dimensions of Marine and Coastal Ecosystems Program, University of Massachusetts Amherst, May 2010, 196pp. Electronic document available here.

Leichter, J. J., G. Shellenbarger, S. Jenovese, S. R. Wing. 1998 Breaking internal waves on a Florida (USA) coral reef: a plankton pump at work? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 166:83-97.

Leichter, J.L., H.L. Stewart, S.L. Miller. 2003. Episodic nutrient transport to Florida coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography 48(4):1394-1407.

Lesser, M.P. and S. Lewis. 1996 Action spectrum for the effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis in the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 134:171-177.

Lessios, H.A. 1988. Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum in the Caribbean: What have we learned? Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19:371-393.

Lessios, H.A. 2005 Diadema antillarum populations in Panama twenty years following mass mortality. Coral Reefs 24:125-127.

Lessios, H.A., D.R. Robertson, J.D. Cubit. 1984. Spread of Diadema mass mortality through the Caribbean. Science 226(4672):335-337.

Lessios, H.A., M.J. Garrido, B.D. Kessing. 2001. Demographic history of Diadema antillarum, a keystone herbivore on Caribbean coral reefs. Proc R. Soc. Lond. 268:2347-2353.

Levitan, D. R. 1988. Algal-urching biomass responses following mass mortality of Diadema antillarum Phillipi at St. Johns, U.S. Virgin Islands. J. Exp. Mar. Bio Eco. 119:167-178.

Levy, J.M., M. Chiappone, K.M. Sullivan. 1996. Invertebrate infauna and epifauna of the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. Volume 5: Site characterization for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The Preserver, Zenda, 166 p.

Lewis, C.F., S.L. Slade, K.E. Maxwell, T.R. Matthews. 2009. Lobster trap impact on coral reefs: effects of wind-driven trap movement. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43:271-282.

Lidz, B.H. and E.A. Shinn. 1991. Paleoshorelines, reefs, and a rising sea: south Florida, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research 7(1):203-339.

Lindeman, K. C. and D. B. Snyder. 1999. Nearshore hardbottom fishes of southeast Florida and effects of habitat burial caused by dredging Fish. Bull. 97:508-525.

Lirman, D. 2000. Fragmentation in the branching coral Acropora palmata(Lamarck): growth, survivorship, and reproduction of colonies and fragments. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 251:41-57.

Lirman, D. and P. Fong. 1997a. Susceptibility of coral communities to storm intensity, duration and frequency. Proceedings 8th International Coral Reef Symposium 1:561-566.

Lirman, D. and P. Fong. 1997b. Patterns of damage to the branching coral Acropora palmata following Hurricane Andrew: Damage and survivorship of hurricane-generated asexual recruits. Journal of Coastal Research 13(1): 67-72.

Lirman, D. and P. Fong. 2007. Is proximity to land-based sources of coral stressors an appropriate measure of risk to coral reefs? An example from the Florida Reef Tract. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:779-791.

Longley, W.H. and S.F. Hildebrand. 1941. Systematic catalogue of the fishes of Tortugas, Florida. Carneg. Inst. Wash. Publ. 535(34)1-331.

Mace, P.M. 1997. Developing and sustaining world fisheries resources: the state of the science and management. pp 98-102. In: D.A. Hancock, D.C. Smith, A. Grant, J.P. Beumer (eds.). Second World Fisheries Congress. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia, pp. 98-102.

MACTEC Engineering and Consulting, Inc. 2003. Monroe County Residential Canal Inventory and Assessment. Final Report. Volumes 1 and 2.

Maliao, R.J., R.G. Turingan, J. Lin. 2008 Phase-shift in coral reef communities in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), USA. Marine Biology 154:841-853.

Marszalek, D., G. Babashoff, Jr., M. R. Noel, D. R. Worley. 1977. Reef distribution in south Florida. Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium 2:223-229

Marzyck, M. 1991. The overseas highways. In: J. Gato D. Galleger (eds.). The Monroe County environmental story. Big Pine Key, FL: Monroe County Environmental Education Task Force, 1991.

Matthews, T.R. 2001. Trap-induced mortality of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in Florida, USA. Mar. Freshwater Res 52:1509-1516.

Matthews, T.R., S. Slade, J. Moore. 2004. Evaluating Trap Impacts on Essential Fish Habitat in the Florida Keys. Poster aPresentation. 57th annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institutes conference. St. Petersburg, FL.

McClenachan L, J.B.C. Jackson, M.J.H. Newman. 2006. Conservation implications of historic sea turtle nesting beach loss. Front Ecol Environ 4:290-296.

McClenachan, L. and A. Cooper. 2008. Extinction rate, historical population structure and ecological role of the Caribbean monk seal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 275(1641):1351-1358.

McClenachan, L. 2008. Social conflict, over-fishing and disease in the Florida sponge fishery, 1849 - 1939. In: D.J. Starkey, P. Holm, M. Barnard (eds). Oceans past: management insights from the history of marine animal populations. Earthscan research editions. 223pp.

McDaniel, C.J., L.B. Crowder, J.A. Piddy. 2000. Spatial dynamics of sea turtle abundance and shrimping intensityin the US Gulf of Mexico. Conservation Ecology 4, 15.

McIntyre, M., R.A. Glazer, G.A. Delgado. 2006. The effects of the pesticides Biomist 30/30 and Dibrom on queen conch (Strombus gigas) embryos and larvae: a pilot study. Proc. Gulf Caribb. Fish. Inst. 57:731 742.

McMurray, S.E., J.E. Blum, J.R. Pawlik. 2008. Redwood of the reef: growth and age of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. Marine Biology 155:159-171.

McPherson B. F. 1968. Contributions to the biology of the sea urchin Eucidaris tribuloides (Lamarck). Bull Mar Sci 18: 400-443

Miller S.L., D.W. Swanson, M. Chiappone. 2002. Multiple spatial scale assessment of coral reef and hard-bottom community structure in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium. Volume 1:69-74.

Miller S.L., M. Chiappone, L.M. Rutten. 2008. Large-scale assessment of marine debris and benthic coral reef organisms in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary - 2008 Quick look report and data summary. Center for Marine Science, Univ. North Carolina-Wilmington, Key Largo, FL. 271pp.

Miller, M.W., K.L. Kramer, S.M. William, L. Johnston, A.M. Szmant. 2009. Assessment of current rates of Diadema antillarum larval settlement. Coral Reefs 28:511-515.

Miller, S.L., M. Chiappone, L.M. Rutten. 2010. Abundance, distribution, and condition of benthic coral reef organisms in the upper Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary - 2010 Quick look report and data summary. Center for Marine Science, Univ. North Carolina-Wilmington, Key Largo, FL. 242pp.

Morris, J.A., Jr. and J.L. Akins. 2009. Feeding ecology of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans) in the Bahamian archipelago. Environmental Biology of Fishes, DOI 10.1007/s10641-009-9538-8.

Morris, J.A., Jr., and P.E. Whitfield. 2009. Biology, ecology, control and management of the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish: an updated integrated assessment. NOAATechnical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 99. 57pp.

Morris, J.A., Jr., J.L. Akins, A. Barse, D. Cerino, D.W. Freshwater, S.J. Green, R.C. Munoz, C. Paris, P.E. Whitfield. 2009. Biology and ecology of the invasive lionfishes,Pterois miles and Pterois volitans. Proceedings of the 61st Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute November 10 - 14, 2008 Gosier, Goudeloupe, French West Indies.

Muñoz , R.C., M.L. Burton, K.J. Brennan R.O. Parker, Jr. 2010. Reproduction, habitat utilization, and movements of Hogfish (Lachnolaimus maximus) in the Florida Keys U.S.A.: Comparisons from fished versus unfished habitats. Bul. Mar. Sci. 86(1):93-116.

Murray, T.J. and Associates, Inc. 2007. Socio-economic baseline development Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Under contract to Socioeconomic Research and Monitoring Program for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Commercial Fishing Panels. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Electronic document available here.

Nagelkerken, I., K. Buchan, G. W. Smith, K. Bonair, P. Bush, J. Garzón-Ferreira, L. Botero, P. Gayle, C. D. Harvell, C. Heberer, K. Kim, C. Petrovic, L. Pors and P. Yoshioka. 1997. Widespread disease in Caribbean sea fans: II. Patterns of infection and tissue loss. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 160: 255-263.

Nagelkerken, I., L. Aerts., L. Pors. 2000. Barrel sponge bows out. Reef Encounter 28:14-15.

NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 2010. 2010 Status of U.S. Fisheries. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA Fisheries Service. 28pp. Electronic document available here.

NMSP (National Marine Sanctuary Program). 2004. A monitoring framework for the National Marine Sanctuary System. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service. Silver Spring, MD. 22 pp. Electronic document available here.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 1996. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary management plan/environmental impact statement, vol II. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service. Silver Spring, MD. 251pp. Electronic document availablehere.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2007. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary revised management plan. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service. Silver Spring, MD. 382 pp. Electronic document available here.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2008. Marine Debris Emergency Response Planning in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico Interim Draft Report. 44pp.

Nobles, R.E., P. Brown, J. Rose, E. Lipp. 2000. The investigation and analysis of swimming-associated illness using the fecal indicator Enterococcus in Southern Florida's marine water. Fla. J. Environ. Health 169:13-19.

Ocean Acidification Reference User Group. 2009. Ocean Acidification: The Facts. A special introductory guide for policy advisers and decision makers. D. d'A. Laffoley, and J.M. Baxter (eds). European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). 12pp.

Olden, J.D., N.L. Poff, M.R. Douglas, M.E. Douglas, K.D. Fausch. 2004. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of biotic homogenization. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:18-24.

Ogden, J.C., J.W. Porter, N.P. Smith, A.M. Szmant, W.C. Jaap, and D. Forcucci. 1994. A long-term interdisciplinary study of the Florida Keys seascape. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54:1059-1071.

Oppel, F. and T. Meisel. 1871. Along the Florida Reef. pp. 265-309. In: Tales of Old Florida. Castle Press. Seacaucus, NJ. 480pp.

Osenberg, C. W., C. M. St. Mary, J. A. Wilson, and W. J. Lindberg. 2002. A quantitative framework to elevate the attraction-production controversy. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 59:S214 - S22.

Parks, P. 1968. The railroad that died at sea. Langley Press Inc., Key West, Florida. 44pp.

Parsons, D.M. and D.B. Eggleston. 2007. Potential population and economic consequences of sublethal injuries in the spiny lobster fishery of the Florida Keys. CISRO Marine and Freshwater Research 58:166-177

Patterson K.L., J.W. Porter, K.B. Ritchie, S.W. Polson, E. Mueller, E.C. Peters, D.L. Santavy, G.W. Smith. 2002. The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean coral, Acropora palmata, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99 pp. 8725-8730.

Peters, E.C. 1997. Diseases of coral-reef organisms. In: C. Birkeland (ed.), Life and Death of Coral Reefs. Chapman and Hall, New York: 114-139.

Pomerance, R., J.K. Reaser, P.0. Thomas. 1999. Coral bleaching, coral mortality, and global climate change. Report. U.S. State Department, Coral Reef Task Force, Washington, D.C.

Porch, C.E., A.M. Eklund, G.P. Scott. 2003. An assessment of rebuilding times for goliath grouper. SEDAR6-RW-3. Sustainable Fisheries Division, NMFS Southeast Fisheries Science Center. Miami, FL. 25pp.

Porch, C.E., A.M. Eklund, G.P. Scott. 2006. A catch-free stock assessment model with application to goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara) off southern Florida. Fish. Bull. 104:89-106.

Porter, J.W. and O.W. Meier. 1992. Quantification of loss and change in Floridian reef coral populations. American Zoologist 32:625-640.

Powers, S. P., J.H. Grabowski, C. H. Peterson, W.J. Lindberg. 2003. Estimating enhancement of fish production by offshore artificial reefs: uncertainty exhibited by divergent scenarios. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 264: 265-277.

Randall J. E., R. E. Schroeder, W. A. Starck. 1964. Notes on the biology of the echinoid Diadema antillarum. Caribb J Sci 4(2-3):421-433.

Rhyne A, Rotjan R, Bruckner A, Tlusty M. 2009. Crawling to collapse: ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fsheries. PLoS ONE 4(12):e8413.

Ritchie, K.B. and G.W. Smith. 1998. Type II White-Band Disease. Revista de Biologia Tropical 46(Suppl. 5):199-203.

Robblee, M. B., T. R. Barber, P. R. Carlson, M. J. Durako, J. W. Fourqurean, L. K. Muehlstein, D. Porter, L. A. Yarbro, R. T. Zieman, J. C. Zieman. 1991. Mass mortality of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum in Florida Bay (USA). Marine Ecology-Progress Series 71(3)297-99.

Roberts, H.H., L.J. Rouse, N.D. Walker, J.H. Hudson. 1982. Cold-water stress in Florida Bay and northern Bahamas; a product of winter cold-air outbreaks. Journal of Sedimentary Research 52(1)145-155.

Rudnick, D.T., P.B. Ortner, J.A. Browder, S.M. Davis. 2005. A conceptual ecological model of Florida Bay. Wetlands 25(4):870-883.

Ruiz-Carus, R., R.E. Matheson, D.E. Roberts, P.E. Whitfield. 2006. The western Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans (Scorpaenidae). In: Florida: Evidence for reproduction and parasitism in the first exotic marine fish established in state waters. Biol. Conserv. 128(March):384-390.

Rumbold, D. and S.C. Snedaker. 1999. Sea-surface microlayer toxicity off the Florida Keys. Mar. Environ. Res.,47:457-472.

Rutten, L.M., M. Chiappone, D.W. Swanson, S.L. Miller. 2009. Stony coral species diversity and cover in the Florida Keys using design-based sampling. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale: 800-804.

Ruzicka, R., K. Semon, M. Colella, V. Brinkhuis, J. Kidney, J. Morrison, K. Macaulay, J.W. Porter, M. Meyers, M. Christman, J. Colee. 2009. Coral Reef Evaluation and Monitoring Project Annual Report. NOAA/NOS MOA-2001-683 (Amendment No. 004)/7477. 111pp.

Ruzicka, R., K. Semon, J. Kidney, M. Colella, J. Morrison, V. Brinkhuis, J. Porter, M. Meyers, M. Christman, J. Colee. 2010. Oral presentaion. Report to Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Water Quality Protection Program Steering Committee. July 7, 2010.

Sale, P.F. 2006. Coral Reef Fishes: Dynamics and Diversity in a Complex System. Academic Press. Burlington, MA. 149-170pp.

Santavy, D.L., E. Mueller, E.C. Peters, L. MacLaughlin, J.W. Porter, K.L. Patterson, J. Campbell. 2001. Quantitative assessment of coral diseases in the Florida Keys: strategy and methodology. Hydrobiologia 460:39-52.

Santavy, D.L., J. Campbell, R.L. Quarles, J.M. Patrick, L.M. Harwell, M. Parsons, L. MacLaughlin, J. Halas, E. Mueller, E C. Peters, and J. Hawkridge. 2005. The epizootiology of coral diseases in South Florida. EPA/600/R-05/146. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Breeze, Florida.

Schofield, P.J., J.A. Morris, Jr., L. Akins. 2009. Field Guide to Nonindigenous Marine Fishes of Florida. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 92. Electronic document available here.

Schomer, N.S. and R.D. Drew. 1982. An ecological characterization of the Lower Everglades, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. 246pp.

SEDAR 8. 2005. Southeastern US spiny lobster stock assessment report.

Sharp, W.C., R.D. Bertelsen, V.R. Leeworthy. 2005. Long-term trends in recreational lobster fishery of Florida, United States: landings, effort and implications for management. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2005, Vol. 39: 733-747. Electronic document available here.

Shearer, T. 2010. Distribution of Tubastraea coccinea in Florida and Flower Garden Banks: Progress Report. Georgia Institute of Technology. 14pp.

Sheridan, P., R. Hill, G. Matthews, R. Appeldoorn, B. Kojis, T. Matthews. 2005. Does trap fishing impact coral reef ecosystems? An update. pp. 511-519. In: Proceedings of the 56th Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. Tortola, British Virgin Islands. 851pp.

Shinn, E.A., J.H. Hudson, R.B. Halley, B. Lidz. 1977. Topographic control and accumulation rate of some Holocene coral reefs, South Florida and Dry Tortugas. Proceedings, Third International Coral Reef Symposium (Miami), 2:1-7.

Shinn, E.A. 1988. The geology of the Florida Keys. Oceanus 31:46-53.

Shinn, E.A.,B.H. Lidz, J.L. Kindinger, J.H. Hudson, R.B. Halley. 1989. A Field Guide: Reefs of Florida and the Dry Tortugas, A Field Trip to the Modern Carbonate Environments of the Florida Keys and the Dry Tortugas. International Geological Congress. IGC Field Trip T1 76. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 54pp.

Shinn, E.A., B.H. Lidz, M.W. Harris. 1994. Factors controlling distribution of Florida Keys reefs. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54:1084 (abstr.).

Shubow, D. 1969. Sponge fishing on Florida's east coast. Tequesta 1(29)3-15. Electronic document available here.

Singh, S.P., A. Azua, A. Chaudhary, S. Khan, K. Willett, P. Gardinali. 2010. Occurrence and distribution of steroids, hormones, and selected pharmaceuticals in south Florida coastal environments. Ecotoxicology 19:338-350.

Smith, N.P. 1994. Long-term Gulf-to-Atlantic transport through tidal channels in the Florida Keys. Bull Mar Sci. 54(3):620-609.

Smith, N.P. and T.R. Lee. 2003. Volume transport through tidal channels in the middle Florida Keys. Journal of Coastal Research 19(2)254-260.

Spade D.J., R.J. Griffitt., L. Liu, N.J. Brown-Peterson, K.J. Kroll. 2010. Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) testis regresses during the reproductive season at nearshore sites in the Florida Keys. PLoS ONE 5(9): e12737. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012737.

Starck, W.A. 1968. A list of fishes of alligator reef, Florida with comments on the nature of the Florida reef fish fauna. Undersea Biology 1:4-40.

Steindler, L., D. Hucheon, A. Avni, M. Ilan. 2005. 16S rRNA phylogeny of sponge associated cyanobacteria. App. Environ. Microbiol. 71:4127-4131.

Stoner, A.W., M. Ray, J.M. Waite. 1995. Effects of a large herbivorous gastropod on macrofauna communities in tropical seagrass meadows. Marine Ecology Progress Series 121:125-137.

Strong, A.M. and G.T. Bancroft. 1994. Patterns of deforestation and fragmentation of mangrove and deciduous seasonal forests in the upper Florida Keys. Bulletin of Marine Science 54(3):795 804.

Szmant, A.M. and A. Forrester, A. 1996. Water column and sediment nitrogen and phosphorus distribution patterns in the Florida Keys, USA. Coral Reefs 15:21-41.

Talge, H. 1989. Observations of recreational divers on coral reefs in the Florida Keys. Final report to the Florida Keys Office of The Nature Conservancy by the University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL. 11pp.

Thanner, S.E., T.L. McIntosh, S.M. Blair. 2006. Development of benthic and fish assemblages on artificial reef materials compared to adjacent natural reef assemblages in Maimi-Dade county, Florida. Bull. Mar. Sci. 78(1):57-70.

Tilmant, J.T. 1989. A history and an overview of recent trends in fishes of Florida Bay. Bull Mar Sci. 44(1):3-33.

Torres, R.E. 2003. Ecological consequences and population changes from intensive fishing of a shallow-water mollusk, Strombus gigas: A site study of Parque Nacional del Este, Domincan Republic. University of Miami, Ph.D. dissertation. 150pp.

USACE (United States Army Corps of Engineers). 1999. C&SF Restudy final integrated feasibility report and programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). Jacksonville, FL: USACE.

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2010. Regional economic accounts data: state and local area personal income and employment. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, On-line Database.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. Annual population estimates for counties. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, On-line Database.

U.S. Department of the Navy. 1990. Environmental assessment of underwater explosion testing near Key West. Florida, and Amendment 1, short-term limited testing at areas D and H. Prepared for the Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering command. Contract no. N62467-88-D-0628. 212pp + appendicies.

Valentine, J.F, K.L. Heck Jr., D. Blackmon, M.E. Goecker, J. Christian, R.M. Kroutil, B.J. Peterson, M.A. Vanderklift, K.D. Kirsh, M. Beck. 2008. Exploited species impacts on trophic linkages along reef-seagrass interfaces in the Florida Keys. Ecological Applications, 18(6):1501-1515.

Vaughn, T.W. 1918. The temperature of the Florida coral reef tract. Papers from the Tortugas Laboratory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington 9:319-339.

Vincente, V.P. 1990. Response of sponges with autotrophic endosymbionts during the coral-bleaching episode in Puerto Rico (West Indies). Coral Reefs 8:199-202.

Voss, J.D. 2006. Coral disease dynamics and environmental drives in the northern Florida Keys and Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. ETD Collection for Florida International University. Paper AAI3235620. Electronic document available here.

Waddell, J.E. and A.M. Clarke (eds.). 2008. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2008. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 73. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 569pp.

Wagner, D., E. Mielbrecht, R. van Woesik. 2008. Application of landscape ecology to spatio-temporal variance of water-quality parameters along the Florida Keys reef tract. Bull Marine Science 83(3):553-569.

Wagner, D., E.P. Kramer, R. van Woesik. 2010. Species composition, habitat, and water quality influence coral bleaching in south-eastern Florida. Marine Ecology Progress Series 408:65-78.

Wanless, H. R. and K. L. Maier. 2007. An evaluation of beach renourishment sands adjacent to reefal settings, Southeast Florida. Southeastern Geology 45:25-42.

Weil, E. 2004. Coral reef diseases in the wider Caribbean. In: E. Rosenberg and Y. Loya (Eds.). Coral health and disease. Springer: 35-68.

Wells, S.L. 1991. Notes on the history of Key West. Pgs. 80-83 In: The Monroe County Environmental Story. J. Gato and D. Gallagher (eds.), Monroe County Environmental Education Task Force, Big Pine Key, Florida.

Wilkinson, C., O. Lindén, H. Cesar, G. Hodgson, J. Rubens, A.E. Strong. 1999. Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of 1998 coral mortality in the Indian Ocean: an ENSO impact and a warning of future change? Ambio 28: 188-196.

Williams, D.E., M.W. Miller, K.L. Kramer. 2008. Recruitment failure in Florida KeysAcropora palmata, a threatened Caribbean coral. Coral Reefs 27:697-705.

Witherington, B., B. Kubilis, B. Brost, B. A. Meylan. 2009. Decreasing annual nest counts in a globally important loggerhead sea turtle population. Ecological Applications 19(1)30-54.

Witman, J.D. 1992. Physical disturbance and community structure of exposed and protected reefs: a case study. American Zoologist 32:641-654.

Witzell, W.N. 1998. The origin of the Florida sponge fishery. Marine Fisheries Review 60(1)27 - 32. Electronic document available here.

Zabel, R.W., C.J. Harvey, S.L. Katz, T.P. Good, P.S. Levin. 2003. Ecologically sustainable yield. American Scientist 9:150-157.

Zieman, J.C., J.W. Fourqurean, T.A. Frankovich. 1999. Seagrass die-off in Florida Bay: long-term trends in abundance and growth of turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum. Estuaries 22(2):460-470.

Additional Resources

Biscayne National Park

Coral Restoration Foundation

Dry Tortugas National Park

Encyclopedia of the Florida Keys

Everglades National Park

Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

Florida Keys Commercial Fishermen's Association

Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Shipwreck Trail

Florida Keys Online Guide

Florida Keys Sanctuary Science Summaries

John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park

Marine Ecosystem Event Response and Assessment (MEERA)

National Key Deer Refuge

Naval Air Station (NAS) on Boca Chica

Naval Air Station Key West

NOAA Coral Reef Watch

NOAA Marine Debris Program

NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service

NOAA National Ocean Service

NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries

Reef Environmental Education Foundation

Reef Relief

Sanctuary Friends Foundation of the Florida Keys

State of Florida

U.S. Coast Guard

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science