Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
2009 Condition Report

Photo of an albatross flying in Papahānaumokuākea


Aeby, G.S. 2006. Baseline levels of coral disease in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Paper read at the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 3rd Scientific Symposium, Honolulu.

Antonelis, G.A., J.D. Baker, T.C. Johanos, R.C. Braun and A.L. Harting.  2004. Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi): status and conservation issues.  Atoll Res. Bull. 543:75-101.

Baker, J.D., C.L. Littnan ,D.W. Johnston. 2006. Potential effects of sea level rise on the terrestrial habitats of endangered and endemic megafauna in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  Endangered Species Research 2:21-30. 

Balazs, G.H. and M. Chaloupka. 2003. Thirty-year recovery trend in the once depleted Hawaiian green sea turtle stock. Biol. Conserv.117:491–498.

Bertilsson-Friedman, P.A. 2002. Shark inflicted injuries to the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi. M.S. Thesis, University of New Hampshire. 91 pp.

Census of Coral Reef Ecosystems (CReefs). 2006 French Frigate Shoals Cruise. A project of the Census of Marine Life.

Clague, D.A. 1996. The growth and subsidence of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. In: Keast A., S.D. Miller (eds.) The origin and evolution of the Pacific Island biotas, New Guinea to eastern Polynesia: patterns and processes. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, pp 35-50.

Clapp, R.B. and R.W. Woodward. 1972. The natural history of Kure Atoll, NWHI. Atoll Res. Bull. 164:303-304.

Cleghorn, Paul. 1988. The settlement and abandonment of two Hawaiian outposts: Nihoa and Necker Islands. Bishop Museum occassional papers Vol. 28, pp. 35-49.

Craig, M.P. and T.J. Ragan. 1999. Body size, survival, and decline of juvenile Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi. Mar. Mammal Sci. 15(3):786-809.

Dameron O.J., M. Parke, M. Albins, R. Brainard. 2007.  Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: An examination of rates and processes. Mar. Poll. Bull. 54(4):423-433.

David, M., S. Campbell, L.A. Woodward, Q.X. Li.  2001. Characterization of a carbofuran-contaminated site in the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge. In:J.J. Johnston (ed.) Pesticides and Wildlife: ACS Symposium Series 771. Chapter 3:22-37.

DiNardo, G.T. and R. Marshall. 2001. Status of Lobster Stocks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1998-2000. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Administrative Report, H-01-04.

Eldredge, L.G. and S.E. Miller. 1994. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1994.  Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 41:3-18.

Emory, K. 1928.  Archaeology of Nihoa and Necker. Bishop Museum Bulletin 53. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press.

Firing, J.B., R. Brainard, E. Firing. 2004. Ten years of shipboard ADCP measurements along the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: 3rd Scientific Symposium, Honolulu. 18 pp.

Friedlander, A.M. and E.E. DeMartini. 2002. Contrasts in density, size, and biomass of reef fishes between the northwestern and the main Hawaiian islands: the effects of fishing down apex predators. Mar. Ecol-Prog. Ser. 230:253-264.

Friedlander, A.M., G. Aeby, R. Brainard, A. Clark, E. DeMartini, S. Godwin, J. Kenyon, R. Kosaki, J. Maragos, P. Vroom. 2005. The sate of coral reef ecosystems of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. pp. 270-311. In: J. Waddell (ed.), The state of coral reef ecosystems of the United States and Pacific freely associated states: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 522 pp. 

Garrison, T. 1999. Oceanography: an invitation to marine science, 3rd ed. Wadsworth Publishing Co. Belt, CA.

Gilmartin, W.G. 1993. Research and management plan for the Hawaiian monk seal at French Frigate Shoals, 1993-96. Honolulu Lab., Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Natl. Marine Fish. Serv., Admin. Rept. H-93-08. 22 pp.

Gilmartin, W.G., R.L. DeLong, A.W. Smith, L.A. Griner, M.D. Dailey. 1980. An investigation into unusual mortality in the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi. In: Grigg, R.W. and R.T. Pfund (eds.). Proceedings of the Symposium on Status of Resource Investigation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, April 24-25, 1980, p 32-41. Univ. HI, Sea Grant Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-04.

Godwin, S., K. Rodgers, P. Jokiel. 2005. Reducing potential impact of invasive marine species in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument. Hawai’i Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Hawai’i Institute of Marine Biology.

Harvell, C., K. Kim, J. Burkholder, R. Colwell, P. Epstein, D. Grimes, E. Hofmann, E. Lipp, A. Osterhaus, R. Over-street, J. Porter, G. Smith, G. Vasta. 1999. Emerging Marine Diseases – climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science285:1505-1510. 

Henderson, J.R. 2001. A pre- and post-MARPOL Annex V summary of Hawaiian monk seal entanglements and marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1982-1998. Mar. Poll. Bull. 42:584-589.

Herman, L.M. 1979. Humpback whales in Hawaiian waters: A study in historical ecology. Pac. Sci. 33:1-15.

Hoeke, R., R. Brainard, R. Moffitt, M. Merrifield. 2006. The role of oceanographic conditions and reef morphology in the 2002 coral bleaching event in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 543:489-503.

Johnston, D.W., M.E. Chapla, L.E. Williams, D.K. Mattila.  2007.  Identification of humpback whale Megaptera novaengliae wintering habitat in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands using spatial habitat modeling.   Endangered Species Research 3:249-257.

Jokiel, P.L. and E. Brown. 2004. Global warming, regional trends and inshore environmental conditions influence coral bleaching in Hawaii. Glob. Change Biol.10(10):1627-1641.

Kelley, C. and R. Moffit.  2004. The impacts of bottomfishing on the Raita and West St. Rogatien Reserve Preservation Areas in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve.  Unpublished report, Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, 49 pp.

Kenyon, K.W. 1972. Man versus the monk seal. J. Mammalogy 53(4):687-696.

Kenyon J.C. and R.E. Brainard. 2006. Second recorded episode of mass coral bleaching in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 543:505-523.

Kenyon J.C., G.S. Aeby, R.E. Brainard, J.D. Chojnacki, M.J. Dunlap, C.B. Wilkinson.  2006.  Mass coral bleaching on high-latitude reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago. In: Y. Suzuki, T. Nakamori, M. Hidaka, H. Kayanne, B.E. Cassareto, K. Nadooka, H. Yamano, M. Tsuchiya (eds.)  Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium Okinawa, Japan. 1950 pp.

Kikiloi, S. 2006. Reconnecting with Ancestral Islands: Examining historical relationships between kānaka maoli and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Report to NOAA for the Kia’i Kai [Guardians of the Sea] Project, Kamakakūokalani, Center for Hawaiian Studies U.H. Mānoa, January.

Kleypas, J. A., R.A. Feely, V. J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, L.L. Robbins. 2006. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A Guide for Future Research, report of a workshop held 18-20 April 2005, St. Petersburg, FL, sponsored by NSF, NOAA and the U.S. Geological Survey, 88 pp.

Kushlan, J. A., M.J. Steinkamp, K.C. Parsons, J. Capp, M. Acosta Cruz, M. Coulter, I. Davidson, L. Dickson, N. Edelson, R. Elliot, R.M. Erwin, S. Hatch, S. Kress, R. Milko, S. Miller, K. Mills, R. Paul, R. Phillips, J.E. Saliva, B. Sydeman, J. Trapp, J. Wheeler, K. Wohl. 2002. Waterbird conservation for the Americas: The North American waterbird conservation plan, version 1. Washington, D.C.: Waterbird Conservation for the Americas. 78 pp.

Mantua, N.J., S.R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J.M. Wallace, R.C. Francis. 1997. A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78:1069-1079.

Maragos, J.E., D.C. Potts, G. Aeby, D. Gulko, J. Kenyon, D. Siciliano, D. VanRavenswaay. 2004. 2000-2002 rapid ecological assessment of corals (Anthozoa) on shallow reefs of the Northwester Hawaiian Islands. Part 1. Species and distribution. Pac. Sci. 58(2):211-230.

Miao, X.S., L. Woodward, C. Swenson, Q.X. Li.  2001.  Comparative concentrations of metals in marine species from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean.  Mar. Poll. Bull. 42(11):1049-1054.

Miller, S.E. and L.G. Eldredge.  1996.  Numbers of Hawaiian species:  Supplement 1.  Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 45:8-17.

National Marine Fisheries Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1998. Recovery plan for U.S. Pacific populations of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD. 

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2005. Stock assessment of the Hawaiian monk seal. 

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2006. Recovery plan for the Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD. 154 pp. 

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2007. Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi). Second Revision. National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD. 165 pp.

National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP). 2004a. A monitoring framework for the National Marine Sanctuary System. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service. Silver Spring, MD. 22 pp.

National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP). 2004b. Advice and recommendations on development of draft fishing regulations under the National Marine Sanctuaries Act Section 304(a)(5) for the proposed Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Marine Sanctuary.

National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP). 2005. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands coral reef ecosystem reserve final reserve operations plan. 255 pp.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1998 (on-line). The extent and condition of U.S. coral reefs" by Steven L. Miller and Michael P. Crosby.NOAA's State of the Coast Report. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA.  

National Ocean Service (NOS). 2003. Atlas of the Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.   

Parrish, F.A., K. Abernathy, G.J. Marshall, B.M. Buhleiert.  2002.  Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) foraging in deep-water coral beds.  Mar. Mammal Sci. 18(1):244-248.

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Randall, J.E. 1992.  Endemism of fishes in Oceania. UNEP Regional Seas Rep. Studl 147:55-67.

Seki, M.P., J.J. Polovina, D.R. Kobayashi, R.R. Bidigare, G.T. Mitchum. 2002. An oceanographic characterization of swordfish longline fishing grounds in the Subtropical North Pacific. Fish Oceanogr. 11 (5): 251-266.

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State of Hawai’i, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources. 2003. Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan.

Turgeon, D., M. Harmon, K. McMahon. 2002. Contaminants. In: J. Maragos and D. Gulko (eds.), p. 44, Coral reef ecosystems of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Interim results emphasizing the 2000 surveys. Maragos, J. and D. Gulko (eds.). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu, Hawaii, 46 pp.

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U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006. Interim visitor services plan, midway atoll national wildlife refuge. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2006

Van Tilburg, H.  2002. Maritime Cultural Resources Survey: Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, submitted to NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve.

Vatter, A. 2003. Bottom longline fishing for sharks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. National Marine Fisheries Service Pacific Islands Region Administrative Report ARPIR- 03-01.

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Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council (WPRFMC). 2006. Draft amendments to the fishery management plans of the Western Pacific region regarding fishing activities in the proposed Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Sanctuary.

White, D.  2007.  Ciguatoxin characterization in Hawaiian archipelago fishes:  toxicity identified by N2A bioassay.  Masters thesis, Univ. of Hawaii at Hilo.

Work, T., G. Balaz, R. Rameyer, R. Morris. 2004. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomatosis from the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003. Dis. Aquat. Organ.Organisms62:163-176.

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Additional Resources

Antiquities Act of 1906 

Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 

Bishop Museum 

Coral-List Web site, 2004 coral bleaching in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Endangered Species Act

Hawai'i Coral Reef Initiative Research Program 

Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology 

Marine Conservation Biology Institute 

Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972

Marine Protected Areas of the United States 

Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 

National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 

Naval Historical Center 

National Park Service 

NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program

NOAA Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS)

NOAA Marine Debris Program

NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service

NOAA National Marine Fisheries Office of Protected Resources

NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center

NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Bottomfish Research and Stock Assessment

NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries

NOAA Ocean Explorer

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument. A Citizen's Guide

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Multi-Agency Education Project Web site, French frigate shoals 

Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument Management Plan

State of Hawaii 

State of Hawaii's Department of Land and Natural Resources 

Sunken Military Craft Act 

The White House Web site, Establishment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

U.S. Geological Survey 

U.S. Geological Survey, The Long Trail of the Hawaiian Hotspot 

Western Pacific Fishery Management Council 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution